Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Instruction in files below. Here are the details for your final portfolio: You are to write three fu | Office Paper

Instruction in files below.

Here are the details for your final portfolio:

You are to write three full pages of text, double-space 12-point font. Your topic is “High Renaissance”. I encourage you to design your own original title. Your three readings (attached below) are 1) the philosopher Pico della Mirandola’s essay on “The Dignity of Man”, 2) Renaissance biographer Giorgio Vasari’s account of painter Raphael and 3) Vasari’s account of sculptor Michelangelo. I also have attached Raphael’s “School of Athens” and several photos of Michelangelo’s “David”. You may wish to consult Google Images to see more details of Raphael’s painting and Michelangelo’s sculpture (if you look up Michelangelo’s “David” please know that his original is indoors; the one featured outside in the piazza is a replica). In your three pages of essay, devote equal time between these three:  Mirandola’s ideas, Raphael and Michelangelo. As for the artists, it doesn’t matter to me how much space you devote to their biographical details or to their actual painting or sculpture. If you focus on the actual works of art, I have a few items to offer: “School of Athens”–the two central figures are Plato and Aristotle. Plato, holding his Timaeus, is pointing toward heaven, arguing that ultimate reality is spiritual and unchanging. On his side of the composition are clustered all the great minds who were essential platonists, idealists. Aristotle, holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics, is gesturing with outstretched hand to this world of physical phenomena, arguing that ultimate reality is always changing, expanding, evolving. Clustered on his side of the composition are all the great minds who were essentially aristotelians, naturalists. Ralphael’s self-portrait is a cameo in the composition (Vasari points it out in his biography), Leonardo da Vinci is the face of Plato, and Michelangelo is the brooding fellow at center left, sitting at a cube in contemplation. Renaissance essentially focused on the great possibilities of human genius, and in this paper I encourage you to offer your own perspective along with the three personalities cited in this research.

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 School of Athens.pdf
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Oration on the Dignity of Man
Pico della Mirandola

I once read that Abdala the Muslim, when asked what was most worthy of awe and
wonder in this theater of the world, answered, “There is nothing to see more
wonderful than man!” Hermes Trismegistus concurs with this opinion: “A great
miracle, Asclepius, is man!” However, when I began to consider the reasons for these
opinions, all these reasons given for the magnificence of human nature failed to
convince me: that man is the intermediary between creatures, close to the gods, master
of all the lower creatures, with the sharpness of his senses, the acuity of his reason,
and the brilliance of his intelligence the interpreter of nature, the nodal point between
eternity and time, and, as the Persians say, the intimate bond or marriage song of the
world, just a little lower than angels as David tells us. I concede these are magnificent
reasons, but they do not seem to go to the heart of the matter, that is, those reasons
which truly claim admiration. For, if these are all the reasons we can come up with,
why should we not admire angels more than we do ourselves? After thinking a long
time, I have figured out why man is the most fortunate of all creatures and as a result
worthy of the highest admiration and earning his rank on the chain of being, a rank to
be envied not merely by the beasts but by the stars themselves and by the spiritual
natures beyond and above this world. This miracle goes past faith and wonder. And
why not? It is for this reason that man is rightfully named a magnificent miracle and a
wondrous creation.

What is this rank on the chain of being? God the Father, Supreme Architect of the
Universe, built this home, this universe we see all around us, a venerable temple of his
godhead, through the sublime laws of his ineffable Mind. The expanse above the
heavens he decorated with Intelligences, the spheres of heaven with living, eternal
souls. The scabrous and dirty lower worlds he filled with animals of every kind.
However, when the work was finished, the Great Artisan desired that there be some
creature to think on the plan of his great work, and love its infinite beauty, and stand
in awe at its immenseness. Therefore, when all was finished, as Moses and Timaeus
tell us, He began to think about the creation of man. But he had no Archetype from
which to fashion some new child, nor could he find in his vast treasure-houses
anything which He might give to His new son, nor did the universe contain a single
place from which the whole of creation might be surveyed. All was perfected, all
created things stood in their proper place, the highest things in the highest places, the
midmost things in the midmost places, and the lowest things in the lowest places. But
God the Father would not fail, exhausted and defeated, in this last creative act. God’s

wisdom would not falter for lack of counsel in this need. God’s love would not permit
that he whose duty it was to praise God’s creation should be forced to condemn
himself as a creation of God.

Finally, the Great Artisan mandated that this creature who would receive nothing
proper to himself shall have joint possession of whatever nature had been given to any
other creature. He made man a creature of indeterminate and indifferent nature, and,
placing him in the middle of the world, said to him “Adam, we give you no fixed
place to live, no form that is peculiar to you, nor any function that is yours alone.
According to your desires and judgement, you will have and possess whatever place
to live, whatever form, and whatever functions you yourself choose. All other things
have a limited and fixed nature prescribed and bounded by Our laws. You, with no
limit or no bound, may choose for yourself the limits and bounds of your nature. We
have placed you at the world’s center so that you may survey everything else in the
world. We have made you neither of heavenly nor of earthly stuff, neither mortal nor
immortal, so that with free choice and dignity, you may fashion yourself into
whatever form you choose. To you is granted the power of degrading yourself into the
lower forms of life, the beasts, and to you is granted the power, contained in your
intellect and judgement, to be reborn into the higher forms, the divine.”

Imagine! The great generosity of God! The happiness of man! To man it is allowed to
be whatever he chooses to be! As soon as an animal is born, it brings out of its
mother’s womb all that it will ever possess. Spiritual beings from the beginning
become what they are to be for all eternity. Man, when he entered life, the Father gave
the seeds of every kind and every way of life possible. Whatever seeds each man sows
and cultivates will grow and bear him their proper fruit. If these seeds are vegetative,
he will be like a plant. If these seeds are sensitive, he will be like an animal. If these
seeds are intellectual, he will be an angel and the son of God. And if, satisfied with no
created thing, he removes himself to the center of his own unity, his spiritual soul,
united with God, alone in the darkness of God, who is above all things, he will surpass
every created thing. Who could not help but admire this great shape-shifter? In fact,
how could one admire anything else? . . .

For the mystic philosophy of the Hebrews transforms Enoch into an angel called
“Mal’akh Adonay Shebaoth,” and sometimes transforms other humans into different
sorts of divine beings. The Pythagoreans abuse villainous men by having them reborn
as animals and, according to Empedocles, even plants. Muhammed also said
frequently, “Those who deviate from the heavenly law become animals.” Bark does
not make a plant a plant, rather its senseless and mindless nature does. The hide does
not make an animal an animal, but rather its irrational but sensitive soul. The spherical
form does not make the heavens the heavens, rather their unchanging order. It is not a
lack of body that makes an angel an angel, rather it is his spiritual intelligence. If you

see a person totally subject to his appetites, crawling miserably on the ground, you are
looking at a plant, not a man. If you see a person blinded by empty illusions and
images, and made soft by their tender beguilements, completely subject to his senses,
you are looking at an animal, not a man. If you see a philosopher judging things
through his reason, admire and follow him: he is from heaven, not the earth. If you see
a person living in deep contemplation, unaware of his body and dwelling in the inmost
reaches of his mind, he is neither from heaven or earth, he is divinity clothed in flesh.

Who would not admire man, who is called by Moses and the Gospels “all flesh” and
“every creature,” because he fashions and transforms himself into any fleshly form
and assumes the character of any creature whatsoever? For this reason, Euanthes the
Persian in his description of Chaldaean theology, writes that man has no inborn,
proper form, but that many things that humans resemble are outside and foreign to
them, from which arises the Chaldaean saying: “Hanorish tharah sharinas “: “Man is
multitudinous, varied, and ever changing.” Why do I emphasize this? Considering that
we are born with this condition, that is, that we can become whatever we choose to
become, we need to understand that we must take earnest care about this, so that it
will never be said to our disadvantage that we were born to a privileged position but
failed to realize it and became animals and senseless beasts. Instead, the saying of
Asaph the prophet should be said of us, “You are all angels of the Most High.” Above
all, we should not make that freedom of choice God gave us into something harmful,
for it was intended to be to our advantage. Let a holy ambition enter into our souls; let
us not be content with mediocrity, but rather strive after the highest and expend all our
strength in achieving it.

Let us disdain earthly things, and despise the things of heaven, and, judging little of
what is in the world, fly to the court beyond the world and next to God. In that cou rt,
as the mystic writings tell us, are the Seraphim, Cherubim, and Thrones 1 in the
foremost places; let us not even yield place to them, the highest of the angelic orders,
and not be content with a lower place, imitate them in all their glory and dignity. If we
choose to, we will not be second to them in

RAPHAEL OF URBINO, Painter and Architect (1483-1520)

THE liberality with which Heaven now and again unites in one person the
inexhaustible riches of its treasures and all those graces and rare gifts which are
usually shared among many over a long period is seen in Raphael Sanzio of Urbino,
who was as excellent as gracious, and endowed with a natural modesty and goodness
sometimes seen in those who possess to an unusual degree a humane and gentle nature
adorned with affability and good-fellowship, and he always showed himself sweet and
pleasant with persons of every degree and in all circumstances. Thus, Nature created
Michelangelo Buonarroti to excel and conquer in art, but Raphael to excel in art and
in manners also. Most artists have hitherto displayed something of folly and savagery,
which, in addition to rendering them eccentric and fantastical, has also displayed itself
in the darkness of vice and not in the splendor of those virtues which render men
immortal. In Raphael, on the other hand, the rarest gifts were combined with such
grace, diligence, beauty, modesty, and good character that they would have sufficed to
cover the ugliest vice and the worst blemishes. We may indeed say that those who
possess such gifts as Raphael are not mere men, but rather mortal gods, and that those
who by their works leave an honored name among us on the roll of fame may hope to
receive a fitting reward in heaven for their labors and their merits.

Raphael was born at Urbino, a most important city of Italy, in 1483, on Good Friday,
at three in the morning, of Giovanni de’ Santi, a painter of no great merit, but of good
intelligence and well able to show his son the right way, a favor which bad fortune
had not granted to himself in his youth. Giovanni, knowing how important it was for
the child, whom he called Raphael as a good augury, being his only son, to have his
mother’s milk and not that of a nurse, wished her to suckle it, so that the child might
see the ways of his equals in his tender years rather than the rough manners of clowns
and people of low condition. When the boy was grown, Giovanni began to teach him
painting, finding him much inclined to that art and of great intelligence. Thus
Raphael, before many years and while still a child, greatly assisted his father in the
numerous works which he did in the state of Urbino. At last, this good and loving
father perceived that his son could learn little more from him, and determined to put
him with Pietro Perugino, who, as I have already said, occupied the first place among
the painters of the time.

When Pietro had seen Raphael’s method of drawing and his fine manners and
behavior, he formed an opinion of him that was amply justified by time. It is well
known that while Raphael was studying Pietro’s style, he imitated him so exactly in
everything that his portraits cannot be distinguished from those of his master, nor
indeed can other things, as we see in some figures done in oils on a panel in S.
Francesco at Perugia for Madonna Maddalena degli Oddi. It represents an
Assumption, Jesus Christ crowning the Virgin in heaven, while the twelve Apostles

about the tomb are contemplating the celestial glory. The predella contains three
scenes: the Annunciation, the Magi adoring Christ, and the Presentation in the
Temple. This work is most carefully finished, and anyone not skilled in style would
take it to be by the hand of Pietro, though there is no doubt that it is by Raphael. After
this Pietro returned on some business to Florence, and Raphael left Perugia, going
with some friends to Citta di Castello. Here he did a panel in S. Agostino in that style,
and a Crucifixion in S. Domenico, which, if not signed with Raphael’s name, would
be taken by everyone to be a work of Perugino. In S. Francesco in the same city , he
also did a Marriage of the Virgin; which shows that Raphael was progressing in skill,
refining upon the style of Pietro and surpassing it. This work contains a temple drawn
in perspective, so charmingly that it is a wonder to see how he confronted the
difficulties of this task. Raphael had thus acquired a great reputation in this style when
the library of the Duomo at Siena was allotted by Pope Pius II to Pinturicchio. As he
was a friend of Raphael, and knew him to be an admirable draughtsman, he brought
him to Siena, where Raphael drew some of the cartoons for that work. He did not
finish it because his love for art drew him to Florence, for he heard great things from
some painters of Siena of a cartoon done by Leonardo da Vinci in the Pope’s Hall at
Florence of a fine group of horses, to be put in the hall of the palace, and also of some
nudes of even greater excellence done by Michelangelo in competition with Leonardo.
This excited so strong a desire in Raphael that he put aside his work and all thought of
his personal advantage, for excellence in art always attracted him.

Arrived in Florence, he was no less delighted with the city than with the works of art
there, which he thought divine, and he determined to live there for some time. Having
struck up a friendship with Ridolfo Ghirlandaio, Aristotele S. Gallo, and other young
painters, he was well received, especially by Taddeo Taddei, who was always inviting
him to his house and table, being one who loved the society of men of ability.
Raphael, who was courtesy itself, in order not to be surpassed in kindness, did two
pictures for him in a transitional style between the early manner of Pietro and of the
other which he learned afterwards, and which was much better, as I shall relate.

This excellent artist studied the old paintings of Masaccio at Florence, and the works
of Leonardo and Michelangelo which he saw induced him to study hard and brought
about an extraordinary improvement in his art and style. While at Florence Raphael
became very friendly with Fri Bartolommeo of S. Marco, whose coloring pleased him
greatly, arid this he tried to imitate. On his part he taught the good father the methods
of perspective, which he had previously neglected. In the midst of this intimacy,
Raphael was recalled to Perugia, where he began by finishing the work for Atalanta
Baglioni, for which he had prepared the cartoon at Florence, as I have said.

On returning to Florence after completing this work, Raphael was commissioned by
the Dei, citizens there, to paint a picture for the chapel of their altar in S. Spirito. He

began this and made good progress with the outline. Meanwhile he did a picture to
send to Siena, which at his departure he left to Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio to finish some
blue drapery in it. This was because Bramante, who was in the service of Julius II,
wrote to him on account of a slight relationship, and because they were of the same
country, saying that he had induced the Pope to have certain apartments done, and that
Raphael might have a chance of showing his powers there. This pleased Raphael so
that he left his works at Florence and the picture of the Dei unfinished and went to

Arrived there, Raphael found a great part of the chambers of the palace already
painted, and the whole being done by several masters. Thus, Piero della Francesca had
finished one scene, Luca da Cortona had completed a wall, while Don Pietro della
Gatta, abbot of S. Clcmente, Arezzo, had begun some things. Bramantino da Milano
also had painted several figures, mostly portraits, and considered very fine. Raphael
received a hearty welcome from Pope Julius, and in the chamber of the Segnatura he
painted the theologians reconciling Philosophy and Astrology with Theology,
including portraits of all the wise men of the world in disputation. Some astrologers
there have drawn figures of their science and various characters on tablets, carried by
angels to the Evangelists, who explain them. Among these is Diogenes with a pensive
air, lying on the steps, a figure admirable for its beauty and the disordered drapery.
There also are Aristotle and Plato, with the Ethics and Timaeus respectively, and a
group of philosophers in a ring about them. Indescribably fine are those astrologers
and geometricians drawing figures and characters with their sextants. Among them is
a youth of remarkable beauty with his arms spread in astonishment and head bent.
This is a portrait of Federigo II, Duke of Mantua, who was then in Rome. Another
figure bends towards the ground, holding a pair of compasses in his hand and turning
them on a board. This is said to be a life-like portrait of Bramante the architect. The
next figure, with his back turned and a globe in his hand, is a portrait of Zoroaster.
Beside him is Raphael himself, drawn with the help of a mirror. He is a very modest
looking young man, of graceful and pleasant mien, wearing a black cap on his head.
The beauty and excellence of the heads of the Evangelists are inexpressible, as he has
given them an air of attention and carefulness which is most natural, especially in
those who are writing. Behind St. Matthew, as he is copying the characters from
tablets, held by an angel, is an old man with paper on his knees copying what
Matthew dictates. As he stands in that uncomfortable position, he seems to move his
lips and head to follow the pen. The minor considerations, which are numerous, are
well thought out, and the composition of the entire scene, which is admirably
portioned out, show Raphael’s determination to hold the field, without a rival, against
all who wielded the brush. He further adorned this work with a perspective and many
figures, so delicately and finely finished that Pope Julius caused all the other works of

the other masters, both old and new, to be destroyed, that Raphael alone might have
the glory of replacing what had been done.

MICHELAGNOLO BUONAROTTI of Florence, Painter, Sculptor and Architect

WHILE industrious and choice spirits, aided by the light afforded by Giotto and his
followers, strove to show the world the talent with which their happy stars and well-
balanced humors had endowed them, and endeavored to attain to the height of
knowledge by imitating the greatness of Nature in all things, the great Ruler of
Heaven looked down and, seeing these vain and fruitless efforts and the presumptuous
opinion of man more removed from truth than light from darkness, resolved, in order
to rid him of these errors, to send to earth a genius universal in each art, to show
single-handed the perfection of line and shadow, and who should give relief to his
paintings, show a sound judgment in sculpture, and in architecture should render
habitations convenient, safe, healthy, pleasant, well-pro- portioned, and enriched with
various ornaments. He further endowed him with true moral philosophy and a sweet
poetic spirit, so that the world should marvel at the singular eminence of his life and
works and all his actions, seeming rather divine than earthy.

In the arts of painting, sculpture and architecture the Tuscans have always been
among the best, and Florence was the city in Italy most worthy to be the birthplace of
such a citizen to crown her perfections. Thus in 1474 the true and noble wife of
Ludovico di Leonardo Buonarotti Simone, said to be of the ancient and noble family
of the Counts of Canossa, gave birth to a son in the Casentino, under a lucky star. The
son was born on Sunday, 6 March, at eight in the evening, and was called
Michelangelo, as being of a divine nature, for Mercury and Venus were in the house
of Jove at his birth, showing that his works of art would be stupendous. Ludovico at
the time was podesta at Chiusi and Caprese near the Sasso della Vernia, where St.
Francis received the stigmata, in the diocese of Arezzo. On laying down his office
Ludovico returned to Florence, to the villa of Settignano, three miles from the city,
where he had a property inherited from his ancestors, a place full of rocks and quarries
of macigno which are constantly worked by stonecutters and sculptors who are mostly
natives. There Michelagnolo was put to nurse with a stonecutter’s wife. Thus, he once
said jestingly to Vasari: “What good I have comes from the pure air of your native
Arezzo, and also because I sucked in chisels and hammers with my nurse’s milk.” In
time Ludovico had several children, and not being well off, he put them in the arts of
wool and silk. Michelangelo, who was older, he placed with Maestro Francesco da
Urbino to school. But the boy devoted all the time he could to drawing secretly, for
which his father and seniors scolded and sometimes beat him, thinking that such
things were base and unworthy of their noble house.

About this time Michelangelo made friends with Francesco Granacci, who though
quite young had placed himself with Domenico del Ghirlandaio to learn painting.
Granacci perceived Michelangelo’s aptitude for design, and supplied him daily with

drawings of Ghirlandaio, then reputed to be one of the best masters not only in
Florence but throughout Italy. Michelangelo’s desire to achieve thus increased daily,
and Ludovico, perceiving that he could not prevent the boy from studying design,
resolved to derive some profit from it, and by the advice of friends put him with
Domenico Ghirlandaio that he might learn the profession. At that time Michelangelo
was fourteen years old.

Michelangelo’s progress amazed Domenico when he saw him doing things beyond a
boy, for he seemed likely not only to surpass the other pupils, of whom there were a
great number, but would also frequently equal the master’s own works. One of the
youths happened one day to have made a pen sketch of draped women by his master,
Michelangelo took the sheet, and with a thicker pen made a new outline for one of the
women, representing her as she should be and making her perfect. The difference
between the two styles is as marvelous as the audacity of the youth whose good
judgment led him to correct his master. The sheet is now in my possession, treasured
as a relic. I had it from Granaccio with others of Michelangelo, to place in the Book of
Designs. In 1550, when Giorgio showed it to Michelangelo at Rome, he recognized it
with pleasure, and modestly said that he knew more of that art when a child than later
on in life.

At this time Lorenzo de’ Medici the Magnificent kept Bertoldo the sculptor in his
garden on the piazza of S. Marco, not so much G the custodian of the numerous
collections of beautiful antiquities there, as because he wished to create a school of
great painters and sculptors with Bertoldo as the head, who had been pupil of
Donatelloo. Although old and unable to work, he was a master of skill and repute,
having diligently finished Donatello’s pulpits and cast many bronze reliefs of battles
and other small things, so that no one then in Florence could surpass him in such
things. Lorenzo, who loved painting and sculpture, was grieved that no famous
sculptors lived in his day to equal the great painters who then flourished, and so he
resolved to found a school. Accordingly, he asked Domenico Ghirlandaio that if he
had any youths in his shop inclined to this he should send them to the garden, where
he would have them instructed so as to do honor to him and to the city. Domenico
elected among others Michelangelo and Francesco Granaccio as being the best. At the
garden they found that Torrigiano was modelling clay figures given to him by
Bertoldo. Michelangelo immediately did some in competition, and Lorenzo, seeing
his genius, always expected great things of him. Thus encouraged, the boy began in a
few days to copy in marble an antique faun’s head, smiling, with a broken nose.
Although he had never previously touched marble or the chisel, he imitated it so well
that Lorenzo was amazed. Seeing that in addition the boy had opened its mouth and
made the tongue and all the teeth, Lorenzo jestingly said, for he was a pleasant man,
“You ought to know that the old never have all their teeth, and always lack some.”

Michelangelo, who loved and respected his patron, took him seriously in his
simplicity, and so soon as he was gone he broke out a tooth and made the gum look as
if it had fallen out. He anxiously awaited the return of Lorenzo, who, when he saw
Michelangelo’s simplicity and excellence, laughed more than once, and related the
matter to his friends as a marvel. He returned to help and favor the youth, and sending
for his father, Ludovico, asked him to allow him to treat the boy as his own son, a
request that was readily granted. Accordingly, Lorenzo gave Michelangelo. a room in
the palace, and he ate regularly at table with the family and other nobles staying there.

To return to Lorenzo’s garden. It was full of antiquities and excellent paintings,
collected there for beauty, study and pleasure. Michelangelo had the keys, and was
much more studious than the others in every direction, and always showed his proud
spirit. For many months he drew Masaccio’s paintings in the Carmine, showing such
judgment that he amazed artists and others, and also roused envy. It is said that
Torrigiano made friends with him, but moved by envy at seeing him more hono red
and skillful than himself, struck him so hard on the nose that he broke it and
disfigured him for life. For this Torrigiano was banished from Florence, as is related

Some of Michelangelo’s friends wrote from Florence urging him to return, as they did
not want that block of marble on the opera to be spoiled which Piero Soderini had
frequently proposed to give to Leonardo da Vinci, and then to Andrea Contucci, an
excellent sculptor, who wanted it. Michelangelo on returning tried to obtain it,
although it was difficult to get an entire figure without pieces, and no other man
except himself would have had the courage to make the attempt, but he had wanted it
for many years, and on reaching Florence he made efforts to get it. It was fourteen feet
high, and unluckily one Simone da Fiesole had begun a giant, cutting between the legs
and mauling it so badly that the wardens of S. Maria del Fiore had abandoned it
without wishing to have it finished, and it had rested so for many years. Michelangelo
examined it afresh, and decided that it could be hewn into something new while
following the attitude sketched by Simone, and he decided to ask the wardens and
Soderini for it. They gave it to him as worthless, thinking that anything he might do
would be better than its present useless condition. Accordingly, Michelangelo made a
wax model of a youthful David holding the sling to show that the city should be
boldly defended and righteously governed, following David’s example. He began it in
the opera, making a screen between the wall and the tables, and finished it without
anyone having seen him at work. The marble had been hacked and spoiled by Simone
so that he could not do all that he wished with it, though he left some of Simone’s
work at the end of the marble, which may still be seen. This revival of a dead thing
was a veritable miracle. When it was finished various disputes arose as to who should
take it to the piazza of the Signori, so Giuliano da Sangallo and his brother Antonio

made a strong wooden frame and hoisted the figure on to it with ropes; they then
moved it forward by beams and windlasses and placed it in position. The knot of the
rope which held the statue was made to slip so that it tightened as the weight
increased, an ingenious device, the design for which is in our book, showing a very
strong and safe method of suspending heavy weights. Piero Soderini came to see it,
and expressed great pleasure to Michelangelo who was retouching it, though he said
he thought the nose large. Michelangelo seeing the gonfaloniere below and knowing
that he could not see properly, mounted the scaffolding and taking his chisel
dexterously let a little marble dust fall on to the gonfaloniere, without, however,
actually altering his work. Looking down he said, “Look now.” “I like it better,” said
the gonfaloniere, “you have given it life.” Michelangelo therefore came down with
feelings of pity for those who wish to seem to understand matters of which they know

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