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 This is the Final for Architecture History

https://docs.google.com/document/d/10jBGRmEM_yFRPQOloO6uebpG3uohcRTcHUG2Uv9IDSI/edit?usp=sharing

QUESTION 1
1. Match the following what American native people to the description that best describes their

architecture and culture

Hohokam
Ancestral Peubloans
Nazca
Haida
Kogi
Comanche

A. These people see themselves and their land as the beating heart of Mother Earth. Their rituals
are derived from stories passed down to each other and a form of sacred knowledge. Without
scientific evidence and often in conflict with western rationalism they have been warning us about
our destruction for decades

B. These people of the horse were brilliant riders who took a new animal introduced to the
world and made it into a part of their being, they used it to remain free and dominant until
their horses were slaughtered.

C. This may be the best farming culture ever. Massive canals, salt-fixing planting methods and a
thousand years of peace through dancing rituals

D. This was not one people but many, who came together and built places of ritual and harvest, then
moved on to another sacred place.

E. These cedar-planked buildings are oriented at the center of the cosmos, facing towards the
source of their sacred food, the ocean. The art is a form of teaching about sacred ancestors and
spirit animals.

F. A complex heirarchical society who left mysterious geoglyphs and sacred cities on the landscape

QUESTION 2
TRUE or FALSE: The Maya collapsed and disappeared.
True

False

QUESTION 3
1. Match the site or culture to the description that best characterizes its role in trade.

Chaco Canyon
Hohokam
Venice
Samarkand
Ocmulgee
Florence
Petra
Caravanserai
Timbuktu
Chang’an

A. This city at the crossroads of the silk road was laid to waste by the mongols for defying their
trade. It was rebuilt using the spoils of conquest by a Mongol descendant to rule a vast empire.

B. Masters of farming, water management, weaving and pottery they traded for shells that they
could then sell for jewelry. They survived through a communal ball-court ritual for over a

thousand years of peace until they began to change their ritual architecture

C. This ancient building type facilitated land merchants on their routes to the west from the east, it
also becomes the template for the early mosque

D. This vibrant capital was at the end of the silk road, and was also the massive capital of several
Dynasties.

E. This site is a center of religion, trade and knowledge. Gold, salt and other vital good for global
trade moved from here overland to the East.

F. This center place traded a ritual experience for food, birds, jewelry and other goods from

hundreds of miles away.

G. Built in a defensible lagoon, this wealthy site was able to build ships quickly to dominate sea

trade. It invented the modern bond market in order to borrow money to finance war, and is the

origin of the first Jewish Ghetto

H. The is most powerful of the violent and independent cities in the region began as a wool and

textile town before mastering the art of banking and exchange to take the products of the east

and move them on to the west. Its wealth helped build what we think of as the Renaissance.

I. Hidden for centuries from outsiders due to its impressive control over water in a desert, this

was a vital location for trade between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean

J. This Mississipean mound culture thrived along a nearby river for hundreds of years. They

farmed, built ancestor burial mounds crafted fine art and kept careful watch over the sun. Many

of the other sites in our region have been destroyed

QUESTION 4
1. Match the structural system to the description that best characterizes its material, form or culture

The Byzantine / Umayyad Arch
Trabeated system
Dou-gong
Romanesque
Jacal Construction
Ute Lodge

A. More popularly known as a wickup, this was a lodge built out of found dead wood to
provide shelter in the winter without harming nature

B. This refers to the careful interweaving of sticks and threads within a delicate mud and stone
structure

C. This is one of the most common forms of structure, involving two vertical elements
(columns) and a horizontal element (a beam), it can be found at such diverses sites as
Stonehenge and the Greek Temple

D. This complex structure is a carefully interlaced yet standardized bracket system that
transistions from the vertical element to the roof structure, it is deeply embedded in a
ritual practice of craft that is maintained over centuries of practice in several building
cultures

E. This delicate arch demonstrates alternating white and red voisuers, and sits atop delicate
columns. In many sites these arches are stacked on top of each other.

F. This term refers to the idea of building tall using heavy arches, thick walls and massive
columns. It means “after the manner of the romans.” While identified with Christian
chruches, it can also be found through the Islamic empire of the middle ages.

QUESTION 5
1. Match the site or building culture to the description that best describes its relationship to water

Caral
Harrapa
The Chaco World
Nabatean Petra
Yuan Dadu
Angor Wat
Sinan’s Istanbul
Roman Nimes

A. The new ruler built a new city around a summer palace. Under the masterful designs of a
hydrologist, ancient canals were widened and bridges were built. As a result the city was able to

harvest trade and water from far away and increased its population rapidly. Although later

conquered, this is still the capital of a vast territory.

B. This place in a relatively arid and forbidding landscape became a center-place of ritual power,
harvesting the resources from a vast territory around it. Its dwellings for elites over generations

were transformed into sacred temples. This is is one of the few sites in history designed to track

and celebrate both solar and lunar events. The system influenced architecture for hundreds of

miles in ever direction.

C. An example of imerial power through infrastructure. Despite being on a river, the engineer
soldiers brough water down a constant slope through mountains and over valleys to allow this

city to grow. Part of this system is now a World Heritage site. The growing citywas later

endowed with all of the architecture of the Empire.

D. One of the most influential architect’s in history, he studied and restored the old roman baths,
aqueducts and allowed the newly conquered city to grow rapidly. His tomb puts his water

accomplishments higher than his temple building.

E. This ancient civilization venerated water, was wealthy and had a vast trading system. Every city
was built to manage water and floods. Although the language remains untranslated, we know it

had a rigorous proportion system for bricks, roads, and measurement.

F. This secretive trading culture was able to survive deep in the desert through a massive

system of underground and cliff-side hidden aquaducts and cisterns. Merchants illustrated their

wealth with elaborate rock cut tombs.

G. This imperial site recreated sacred Hindu mountains and rivers centered on canals and

barays within a giant gridded landscape powered by rice. It was one of the largest urban centers

of the medieval world. It will eventually become buddhist as the empire grows.

H. This recently discovered ancient site relied on irrigation from a river to grow food and cotton

with which it could trade for far away goods like fish, musical instruments and narcotics. It lived

in peace for over a thousand years.

QUESTION 6
1. Match the site or ritual to the description that best characterizes its meaning and form

The Mosque of Damascus

The Al-Asqa “Dome of the Rock” mosque

The Mosque of Djenne

The Mosques of Sinan

The Abassid Mosque

The Great Mosque of Cordoba

The Ger

S. Foye

The Kiva

Friday Mosque of Isfahan

The Temple of Kulkulkan

Kogi Weaving

Mahalipuram Shore Temple

Shabono

S. Sauveur, Aix

Tipi

A. This heavy yet portable structure is both a tension and compression architecture. It is gender
divded and the roof rafters represent the infinite sky while the central pole represents the cosmic

tree of the univrse.

B. The building is to be read not just as a mountain, but as mountains of different scales, getting
smaller and smaller at each level until it becomes a dot.

There are three temples, Mount Meru, Shiva the Destroyer and the pool where Vishnu creates

the world

C. Built with a new building technique from back to front, this pilgrimage church celebrates a girl
who freed slaves and cured baldness. The back is more elaborate than the front. The

architecture is largely unchanged because the Saint fell out of favor

D. This temple illustrates the impossibility of using style to date a building. Built over a roman
forum, its Romanesque nave is turned into an aisle of the Gothic church, whose altars on the

otherside get a Baroque remodel that was never finished.

E. This typology is the most austere and closely resembles the original caravanserai form of the
Prohpets houes and first mosque. The Minaret is strictly for the call to prayer and in the center

of the courtyard is water for ritual cleansing that is often housed in a form that resembles a

Zoastrian Temple.

F. This temple can only be in this place. Built over a sacred water place on the cardinal directions
of other sacred water places, twice a year the god manifests itself on the stairs bringing the wind

and rain behind it. Its steps and platform are also the days in a year.

G. This temple is built over the ruins of a temple in the Byzantine manner with a richly adorned
dome representing heaven. It is built over a sacred mountain and rock, and remains a contested

site in history.

H. This typology re-introduced the Byzantine typology with a dome representing heaven on

clearly articlulated supports. Paid for by war and often built of spolia, each of these had its

non-religious fucntions moved out of the mosque to pay for its upkeep. The site, detail and

number of minarets was strictly governed by decorum. He used many different structural

systems to support his domes

I. This is likely the only native americas architecture you heard of. However it is a post-contact

architecture deployed by the Plains People. The word itself derives from a Lakota word for

“home”.

J. This mud architecture has its origins in a sacrifice and the mythic lizard’s ability to cling to

walls. Its masons are holy, and although recently restored, the annual plastering is an important

ritual.

K. The last surving Umayyad temple of the region. The original mosque was built over the

remains of a church with spolia supporting double-stacked Byzantine-influenced arches. Over

centuries it was expanded to represent the spread of Islam. This mosque is unusual in that the

hypostyle hall is wider on the quibla axis and possibly was saved when it was converted into a

church.

L. This is a sacred act designed to replicated the Mother’s spinning the world into existence.

Despite being isolated from the world and without relying on science, their close observation

and deeply thoughtful practice of seeing themselves as the stewards of the beating heart of the

world, they have been warning us about our imminent destruction for decades.

M. This mosque is designed to re-orient the worshipper towards Mecca from the grid of the city.

It is entered at the corners and has a vast courtyard. The courtyard has four half domes known

as Iwans that are richly adorned with blue tile and scripture.

N. This is a misunderstood architecture. Although many but not all of them are round, they can

be cut into the ground or built above a sacred site or water. They can be both domestic and

sacred structures. You can exit through the roof representing rebirth or it can be open to the sky

to track the sun, moon and stars. In some cases the number of them can represent the number

of elite families.

O. The second iteration of this temple occupies a Roman sacred precinct. It encompasses an

early Christian temple and is richly adorned by local craftsman. It has a basilica form with

double-stacked arches and is the oldest mosque in the world.

P. This fragile circular enclosure around a sacred space is both the dwelling place and sacred

space of the ednangered Yanomani

QUESTION 7
1. Match the powerful culture or religious tradition to the description of its gods, architecture or

power.

Khmer
Christian Architecture after Constantine
Ottoman Empire
Inca
The Maya
The Mexica
Shinto
Early Buddhism
Diocletian Reforms
Shangdi
Aboriginal people in Australia
Olmec

Mamluk

A. Financing worship of Islam through conquest

B. While this is the origin of the Western church, this first a way to subdivide a vast empire into
more efficient taxable regions. The creator of this remade himself into a God and persecuted all

who stood against the Roman religious system

C. Hinduism and Vishnu as King, powered by the infrastructure of rice and water. Later a vast
Buddhist kingdom that perhaps collapsed as result of endless war.

D. Oracle bone rituals and sacrifices to divine weather, and the fortunes of crops, royalty and war.

E. The Cult Leader as Emperor who began the transformation the architecture of Roman Justice
into a celebration of Christ as King

F. Sun Goddess and the cycle of rebirth

G. Sun, Food and Sacred Landscapes through infrastructure and conquest

H. The rainbow serpent who created the world in the Dream Time. Musicians and artists are

holy

I. The Gods of Corn are born out of the back of Turtle, and the bird-sky god stands atop the

world tree with roots in the primordial ocean

J. Recreating a burial mound with his life story from desire to learning to enlightenment

K. Known by their Mexica name for rubber people. This vast culture not only created corn and

the three sisters agricultural system that sustained this region for thousands of years. In

addition, they invented the ball ritual and a mystical jaguar cult that would be foundational to

everything that comes after

L. This is a culture of warrior slaves. When they rose to power they created vast funerary

monuments with tombs, mosques and schools oriented within the urban from

M. Borrowed Gods and the importance of blood sacrifice

QUESTION 8
1. Match the following sites or systems to the description that best describes its urban or landscape

order

The Castrum
Wengchen Plan
The Islamic City
Tenochtitlan
Cusco
Kogi World Town
Pilgrimage Churches
Dadu / Beijing
Tiwanaku
Chan Chan
Teotihuacan
Cairo

A. This military camp order was deigned to repeat a defensive strategy over any
landscape. Eventually they became settlements on the expanding empire settled by
veterans. They were oriented toward the cardinal directions and were eventually
endowed with a temple, arena, forum and basilica. The traces of the these can be
found all around the Mediteranean

B. This master-planned gridded city was located in the middle of a vast water system of
canals and irrigation. It designed arguably the most productive floating gardens in
history and derived its power from tribute and incredibly productive agricutlure. For
a hundred years it was one of the largest cities on earth. It is possible that it became
a template after it was conquered for the European imposition of the centered grid at
home and around the world

C. This stone path up the passes dozens of platforms, each of which is a place of ritual
worship following sacred paths inscribed in stone.

D. This sacred city is a cosmogram oriented to the cardinal directions and sacred peaks

E. This ancient template for a city was replicated for thousands of years. It had 3 gates
facing the cardinal directions enclosed in a massive rectangular wall.

F. This is a Mongolian adaptation of an ancient Shandi and Zhou imperial system. With
ordered gates oriented towards the cardinal directions, and a palace at the. This massive

capital city embeds the taoist movement of water and nature through the confucian order of

heirarchical spaces centered on the body of the emperor. The Dynasty afterwards keeps

the same oder yet relocates the city to the south so that the palace is now at the northern

end.

G
.

Inhabited solely by relatives of the ruler and priests, its grid divides the city into four
quarters as a representation of its empire where the roads reach out in straight lines
to each of its territories. It has a massive open space in the middle and its principle
spaces, architectures and waterways articulate the sacred animal form of the
panther.

H. This city begins as the capital of the Fatimid Empire, before becoming the Mamluk
capital. While it has the third largest mosque in Africa, it is home to many funerary
monuments that orient the urban spaces in the old city.

I. These cities vary greatly, depending on what was there first. However, one of the
defining characteristics is oreinting neghborhoods around sacred temples and
markets. Formerly gridded streets begin to disappear as the city is re-oreinted
towards protecting the privacy of extended families. Many streets have few windows
or doors (oustide the markets) while the interior spaces are open and spacious.

J. The idea of moving from sacred space to sacred space along trade routes, creates
its own urban systems. Small towns and temples appear one days walk from each
other as religious travelers move from sacred site to sacred site, reinforcing the
economic importance of relics and trade.

K. Also know as sun sun, this trading city had kings that when they died kept their
land. New kings had to constantly conquer new territory.

L. Known by its Mexica name, this is one of the largest planned cities in the
Americas. Its ritual temples were built over sacrifices and sacred caves. Originally
brightly painted and oriented towards a sacred mountian.

QUESTION 9
1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Hinduism?

A. The worship of one god.
B. The inlfuence of Jainism, Buddhism, Vedism, Zoarastrianism, Vedism
C. The idea of a sacred river, that is manifest as a god
D. The importance of a sacred mountain as representative of the infinite

universe.

QUESTION 10
1. Match the culture to the infrastructure or system that they are best known for

Hohokam
Inca
Dynastic China
Romans
Nabateans
Chacoans
Mongols
Nazca

A. Possibly the largest canal system for farming in an arid landscape in the Americas

B. 40000 km of roads in four terrains at great height

C. The Grand Canal, Great Walls and massive cities

D. Aqueducts and architectural systems that can be repeated over a large territory

E. Aqueducts and hidden cisterns in the desert

F. Ritual spirit roads carved or marked straight for hundreds of miles

G
.

Yam, a postal service that could move freely over thousands of miles

H. Geoglyphs marking a sacred landscape

QUESTION 11
1. True or False: Plains Native people of North America always had horses (Extra Credit).

True

False

QUESTION 12
1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the “Gothic”
A. These soaring structures are meant to be experienced from the outside as objects and

monuments framed in the open space in the city.
B. The structure is the scripture, religion is expressed through visual sculptural narratives.
C. The use of light is meant to represent Heaven given the darkness and short life of the war-weary

times.
D. It could take a few decades to build or hundreds. Often the building was delayed by war, therefore

the next stage was built in a more contemporary style. Hardly any are actually finished and many
have been continually alteredNimes

QUESTION 13
True or False: Agriculture and urbanization is the longest human tradition (Extra Credit)

True

False

QUESTION 14
1. Match the site to the description that best described how it embodies the cosmology or religion

Angor Wat
The Pantheon
Hagia Sophia
Florence Cathedral
S. Apollinaire, Ravenna
The Churches of Rome
St. George, Lalibella
Mayan Ballcourt
Roman Temple
Greek Temple
Borobrodur
Temple of the Inscriptions, Palenque
The Abao

1568-1574 Sultan Selimeye Mosque

A. This columned sacred space was oreinted along cardinal directions and inspired by the
Etruscan practice of using the front porch as a stage for sacrifice and augury. These were

stamped all over the empire.

B. This columned sacred space was oriented towards the sunrise on the God’s birthday.
Rituals were performed in front of the temple, that was usually brightly painted. Each
one was custom.

C. Built by three successive dynasties, this sacred site combines the narrative of ruler
conquest with the creation narrative of the god Vishnu. It is surrounded by a massive
barray representing the cosmic ocean. As you move towards the center the narrative
and power get more and more intense. It was one of the largest cities in the world
and ruled over an enormous engineered landscape

D. A powerful banking family made rich by trade from east to west built the largest
church in Christendom at the time to reinforce their city as a center of power. Its
dome was the width of the Pantheon, however could not be built for a long time. The
Dome is not a dome and is a complex structure of Gothic ribs reinforced by a series
of stone, iron and wooden chains and thin heringbone stacked bricks.

E. Its form is the back of a turtle in a primordial sea on whose back an all important God
is born, based on a series of mythical stories about the origin of corn and the sun.
The ritual game is a sacred event, where the captain has to be sacrificed to please
the Gods.

F. This rock carved church has little resemblence to the roman inspired early christian
churches. It began as an artesianal well and the church was carved down to the level
of the water

G
.

This three tiered sacred Mountain, is a complete timeline of the history of its people
and its most important King going back in time and forward into the far future. It was

built to commemorate the end of war and to mark the sacred spring.The Priests
would read this out to the people from the top.

H. This early church was built by the Goth Aryan Christian king of Italy using a
number of early depictions of Chrerst, both with and without a beard, , where God
occupies the seat of judgement and Christ is a figure enthroned. The scripture is
depicted in pictures and allegories, not text. It was subsequently modified by
Justinian and others. The city was once the center of an enlightened Gothic Empire.

I. This sacred mound is derived from a pile of stones over the dead, and also a
representation of a sacred mountian and represents four secred elements. Adapted
to Buddhism over time, it is still a place where one must dismount and add a rock.

J. The entire plateau is organized into a system of concentric circles with, at its
center, Mount Meru. The bottom circle is strictly an account of experiences, the
middle circle is all that man is taught, the highest circle is the sphere of revelation.
This buddhist temple is one of the world’s largest mandelas, however it has been
restored recently making its interpretation of the imagery difficult

K. This Church was built at the new center of an Empire. It was designed to represent
the power of God with its massive dome that represented heaven appearing to float
on a ring of light unsupported from below. Without changing its essential form, it
became a Mosque when the city changed Empires. It illustrates the convergence of
Roman engineering with Mesopotamian dome structures.

L. This unique structure was the centerpiece of a new city built adjacent to an ancient
city. Unlike other temples it was oriented north so that the occulus in the dome could
harness the movement of the sun. Its materials were harnessed from the entire
Empire while its influences are largely from the East. Its vast coffered concrete dome
inspired thousands of buildings for the next two millenium

M. These many sites were outside the old wall as you could not bury a body inside
the Roma sacred border. These tombs for martyrs became the sites of pilgrimage
churches over time, including the original S. Peters.

N. First grand building to be seen by Western travelers to Istanbul. Financed by
plunder from the military campaign of Cyprus, it is a vertical triumph dedicated to the
Glory of God and and its architect who finally built the largest dome

QUESTION 15
1. Match the following spaces or artifacts or types with the description.

Mount Meru
Sikhara
Garb Griha
Lingham
Chasqui
Quipu
Quibla Wall
The Nomad
Sipapu
Gargoyle
Puquois
Geoglyphs and Geograms

A. This sacred niche held the sacred text and was almost always oreinted towards
Mecca. In some Islamic cultures it is also a representation of heaven with a garden
on the other side

B. This is the idea of a womb chamber where the god can be born into the world. It
occupies an empty space at the heart of a temple.

C. This is the representation of the infinite universe. It is manifest as actual mountains
and is where the gods live.

D. These are spiral shaped wells for walking and driving wind into the underground
reservoir

E. This figure represented both the idea of the grotesque as a critique of power as well
as the likely future for sinners.

F. This hole on the bottom of the Kiva represents the emergence from the earth
Mothers womb

G. This human infrastructure is one of the keys to the empire’s power. He is sacred
messenger who was able to run across roads carved into the mountains.
Architectures were placed along his route in order to get him to his location quickly

H. This religious item and form can be traced back to the Harrapan culture. In its
current use it represents a male sex aspect in a women’s aspect and is often at the
center of a temple attended by preists ofr visible through a small window

I. These massive landscape markers are oriented towards celestial systems on the
ground with rocks or moving rocks away from the surface

J. This temple form represents the Mount Meru cosmology and is often depicted as
infinite levels with the abodes fo the gods or as vibrating with energy

K. This cultural type is found all over the world, and although they appear to be only
mobile and pastoral they are the lynchpins on the global economy and have had an
outsized influence on the world.

L. This system of knots was a form of communication and counting for a short-lived
but powerful empire. Its use can be traced back to the earliest sites of this part of the
world

QUESTION 16
1. True or False (Extra Credit): The Tomato has always been an important part of Italian Cuisine

Ture
False


QUESTION 1

1. Match the following what American native people to the description that best describes their architecture and culture

Hohokam

Ancestral Peubloans

Nazca

Haida

Kogi

Comanche

A.

These people see themselves and their land as the beating heart of Mother Earth. Their rituals are derived from stories passed down to each other and a form of sacred knowledge. Without scientific evidence and often in conflict with western rationalism they have been warning us about our destruction for decades

B.

These people of the horse were brilliant riders who took a new animal introduced to the world and made it into a part of their being, they used it to remain free and dominant until their horses were slaughtered.

C.

This may be the best farming culture ever. Massive canals, salt-fixing planting methods and a thousand years of peace through dancing rituals

D.

This was not one people but many, who came together and built places of ritual and harvest, then moved on to another sacred place.

E.

These cedar-planked buildings are oriented at the center of the cosmos, facing towards the source of their sacred food, the ocean. The art is a form of teaching about sacred ancestors and spirit animals.

F.

A complex heirarchical society who left mysterious geoglyphs and sacred cities on the landscape



QUESTION 2




TRUE or FALSE: The Maya collapsed and disappeared.

True

False















QUESTION 3

1. Match the site or culture to the description that best characterizes its role in trade.

Chaco Canyon

Hohokam

Venice

Samarkand

Ocmulgee

Florence

Petra

Caravanserai

Timbuktu

Chang’an

A.

This city at the crossroads of the silk road was laid to waste by the mongols for defying their trade. It was rebuilt using the spoils of conquest by a Mongol descendant to rule a vast empire.

B.

Masters of farming, water management, weaving and pottery they traded for shells that they could then sell for jewelry. They survived through a communal ball-court ritual for over a thousand years of peace until they began to change their ritual architecture

C.

This ancient building type facilitated land merchants on their routes to the west from the east, it also becomes the template for the early mosque

D.

This vibrant capital was at the end of the silk road, and was also the massive capital of several Dynasties.

E.

This site is a center of religion, trade and knowledge. Gold, salt and other vital good for global trade moved from here overland to the East.

F. This center place traded a ritual experience for food, birds, jewelry and other goods from hundreds of miles away.

G. Built in a defensible lagoon, this wealthy site was able to build ships quickly to dominate sea trade. It invented the modern bond market in order to borrow money to finance war, and is the origin of the first Jewish Ghetto

H. The is most powerful of the violent and independent cities in the region began as a wool and textile town before mastering the art of banking and exchange to take the products of the east and move them on to the west. Its wealth helped build what we think of as the Renaissance.

I. Hidden for centuries from outsiders due to its impressive control over water in a desert, this was a vital location for trade between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean

J. This Mississipean mound culture thrived along a nearby river for hundreds of years. They farmed, built ancestor burial mounds crafted fine art and kept careful watch over the sun. Many of the other sites in our region have been destroyed



QUESTION 4

1. Match the structural system to the description that best characterizes its material, form or culture

The Byzantine / Umayyad Arch

Trabeated system

Dou-gong

Romanesque

Jacal Construction

Ute Lodge

A.

More popularly known as a wickup, this was a lodge built out of found dead wood to provide shelter in the winter without harming nature

B.

This refers to the careful interweaving of sticks and threads within a delicate mud and stone structure

C.

This is one of the most common forms of structure, involving two vertical elements (columns) and a horizontal element (a beam), it can be found at such diverses sites as Stonehenge and the Greek Temple

D.

This complex structure is a carefully interlaced yet standardized bracket system that transistions from the vertical element to the roof structure, it is deeply embedded in a ritual practice of craft that is maintained over centuries of practice in several building cultures

E.

This delicate arch demonstrates alternating white and red voisuers, and sits atop delicate columns. In many sites these arches are stacked on top of each other.

F.

This term refers to the idea of building tall using heavy arches, thick walls and massive columns. It means “after the manner of the romans.” While identified with Christian chruches, it can also be found through the Islamic empire of the middle ages.



QUESTION 5

1. Match the site or building culture to the description that best describes its relationship to water

Caral

Harrapa

The Chaco World

Nabatean Petra

Yuan Dadu

Angor Wat

Sinan’s Istanbul

Roman Nimes

A.

The new ruler built a new city around a summer palace. Under the masterful designs of a hydrologist, ancient canals were widened and bridges were built. As a result the city was able to harvest trade and water from far away and increased its population rapidly. Although later conquered, this is still the capital of a vast territory.

B.

This place in a relatively arid and forbidding landscape became a center-place of ritual power, harvesting the resources from a vast territory around it. Its dwellings for elites over generations were transformed into sacred temples. This is is one of the few sites in history designed to track and celebrate both solar and lunar events. The system influenced architecture for hundreds of miles in ever direction.

C.

An example of imerial power through infrastructure. Despite being on a river, the engineer soldiers brough water down a constant slope through mountains and over valleys to allow this city to grow. Part of this system is now a World Heritage site. The growing citywas later endowed with all of the architecture of the Empire.

D.

One of the most influential architect’s in history, he studied and restored the old roman baths, aqueducts and allowed the newly conquered city to grow rapidly. His tomb puts his water accomplishments higher than his temple building.

E.

This ancient civilization venerated water, was wealthy and had a vast trading system. Every city was built to manage water and floods. Although the language remains untranslated, we know it had a rigorous proportion system for bricks, roads, and measurement.

F. This secretive trading culture was able to survive deep in the desert through a massive system of underground and cliff-side hidden aquaducts and cisterns. Merchants illustrated their wealth with elaborate rock cut tombs.

G. This imperial site recreated sacred Hindu mountains and rivers centered on canals and barays within a giant gridded landscape powered by rice. It was one of the largest urban centers of the medieval world. It will eventually become buddhist as the empire grows.

H. This recently discovered ancient site relied on irrigation from a river to grow food and cotton with which it could trade for far away goods like fish, musical instruments and narcotics. It lived in peace for over a thousand years.



QUESTION 6

1. Match the site or ritual to the description that best characterizes its meaning and form

The Mosque of Damascus

The Al-Asqa “Dome of the Rock” mosque

The Mosque of Djenne

The Mosques of Sinan

The Abassid Mosque

The Great Mosque of Cordoba

The Ger

S. Foye

The Kiva

Friday Mosque of Isfahan

The Temple of Kulkulkan

Kogi Weaving

Mahalipuram Shore Temple

Shabono

S. Sauveur, Aix

Tipi

A.

This heavy yet portable structure is both a tension and compression architecture. It is gender divded and the roof rafters represent the infinite sky while the central pole represents the cosmic tree of the univrse.

B.

The building is to be read not just as a mountain, but as mountains of different scales, getting smaller and smaller at each level until it becomes a dot.

There are three temples, Mount Meru, Shiva the Destroyer and the pool where Vishnu creates the world

C.

Built with a new building technique from back to front, this pilgrimage church celebrates a girl who freed slaves and cured baldness. The back is more elaborate than the front. The architecture is largely unchanged because the Saint fell out of favor

D.

This temple illustrates the impossibility of using style to date a building. Built over a roman forum, its Romanesque nave is turned into an aisle of the Gothic church, whose altars on the otherside get a Baroque remodel that was never finished.

E.

This typology is the most austere and closely resembles the original caravanserai form of the Prohpets houes and first mosque. The Minaret is strictly for the call to prayer and in the center of the courtyard is water for ritual cleansing that is often housed in a form that resembles a Zoastrian Temple.

F.

This temple can only be in this place. Built over a sacred water place on the cardinal directions of other sacred water places, twice a year the god manifests itself on the stairs bringing the wind and rain behind it. Its steps and platform are also the days in a year.

G.

This temple is built over the ruins of a temple in the Byzantine manner with a richly adorned dome representing heaven. It is built over a sacred mountain and rock, and remains a contested site in history.

H. This typology re-introduced the Byzantine typology with a dome representing heaven on clearly articlulated supports. Paid for by war and often built of spolia, each of these had its non-religious fucntions moved out of the mosque to pay for its upkeep. The site, detail and number of minarets was strictly governed by decorum. He used many different structural systems to support his domes

I. This is likely the only native americas architecture you heard of. However it is a post-contact architecture deployed by the Plains People. The word itself derives from a Lakota word for “home”.

J. This mud architecture has its origins in a sacrifice and the mythic lizard’s ability to cling to walls. Its masons are holy, and although recently restored, the annual plastering is an important ritual.

K. The last surving Umayyad temple of the region. The original mosque was built over the remains of a church with spolia supporting double-stacked Byzantine-influenced arches. Over centuries it was expanded to represent the spread of Islam. This mosque is unusual in that the hypostyle hall is wider on the quibla axis and possibly was saved when it was converted into a church.

L. This is a sacred act designed to replicated the Mother’s spinning the world into existence. Despite being isolated from the world and without relying on science, their close observation and deeply thoughtful practice of seeing themselves as the stewards of the beating heart of the world, they have been warning us about our imminent destruction for decades.

M. This mosque is designed to re-orient the worshipper towards Mecca from the grid of the city. It is entered at the corners and has a vast courtyard. The courtyard has four half domes known as Iwans that are richly adorned with blue tile and scripture.

N. This is a misunderstood architecture. Although many but not all of them are round, they can be cut into the ground or built above a sacred site or water. They can be both domestic and sacred structures. You can exit through the roof representing rebirth or it can be open to the sky to track the sun, moon and stars. In some cases the number of them can represent the number of elite families.

O. The second iteration of this temple occupies a Roman sacred precinct. It encompasses an early Christian temple and is richly adorned by local craftsman. It has a basilica form with double-stacked arches and is the oldest mosque in the world.

P. This fragile circular enclosure around a sacred space is both the dwelling place and sacred space of the ednangered Yanomani





QUESTION 7

1. Match the powerful culture or religious tradition to the description of its gods, architecture or power.

Khmer

Christian Architecture after Constantine

Ottoman Empire

Inca

The Maya

The Mexica

Shinto

Early Buddhism

Diocletian Reforms

Shangdi

Aboriginal people in Australia

Olmec

Mamluk

A.

Financing worship of Islam through conquest

B.

While this is the origin of the Western church, this first a way to subdivide a vast empire into more efficient taxable regions. The creator of this remade himself into a God and persecuted all who stood against the Roman religious system

C.

Hinduism and Vishnu as King, powered by the infrastructure of rice and water. Later a vast Buddhist kingdom that perhaps collapsed as result of endless war.

D.

Oracle bone rituals and sacrifices to divine weather, and the fortunes of crops, royalty and war.

E.

The Cult Leader as Emperor who began the transformation the architecture of Roman Justice into a celebration of Christ as King

F.

Sun Goddess and the cycle of rebirth

G.

Sun, Food and Sacred Landscapes through infrastructure and conquest

H. The rainbow serpent who created the world in the Dream Time. Musicians and artists are holy

I. The Gods of Corn are born out of the back of Turtle, and the bird-sky god stands atop the world tree with roots in the primordial ocean

J. Recreating a burial mound with his life story from desire to learning to enlightenment

K. Known by their Mexica name for rubber people. This vast culture not only created corn and the three sisters agricultural system that sustained this region for thousands of years. In addition, they invented the ball ritual and a mystical jaguar cult that would be foundational to everything that comes after

L. This is a culture of warrior slaves. When they rose to power they created vast funerary monuments with tombs, mosques and schools oriented within the urban from

M. Borrowed Gods and the importance of blood sacrifice



QUESTION 8

1. Match the following sites or systems to the description that best describes its urban or landscape order

The Castrum

Wengchen Plan

The Islamic City

Tenochtitlan

Cusco

Kogi World Town

Pilgrimage Churches

Dadu / Beijing

Tiwanaku

Chan Chan

Teotihuacan

Cairo

A.

This military camp order was deigned to repeat a defensive strategy over any landscape. Eventually they became settlements on the expanding empire settled by veterans. They were oriented toward the cardinal directions and were eventually endowed with a temple, arena, forum and basilica. The traces of the these can be found all around the Mediteranean

B.

This master-planned gridded city was located in the middle of a vast water system of canals and irrigation. It designed arguably the most productive floating gardens in history and derived its power from tribute and incredibly productive agricutlure. For a hundred years it was one of the largest cities on earth. It is possible that it became a template after it was conquered for the European imposition of the centered grid at home and around the world

C.

This stone path up the passes dozens of platforms, each of which is a place of ritual worship following sacred paths inscribed in stone.

D.

This sacred city is a cosmogram oriented to the cardinal directions and sacred peaks

E.

This ancient template for a city was replicated for thousands of years. It had 3 gates facing the cardinal directions enclosed in a massive rectangular wall.

F.

This is a Mongolian adaptation of an ancient Shandi and Zhou imperial system. With ordered gates oriented towards the cardinal directions, and a palace at the. This massive capital city embeds the taoist movement of water and nature through the confucian order of heirarchical spaces centered on the body of the emperor. The Dynasty afterwards keeps the same oder yet relocates the city to the south so that the palace is now at the northern end.

G.

Inhabited solely by relatives of the ruler and priests, its grid divides the city into four quarters as a representation of its empire where the roads reach out in straight lines to each of its territories. It has a massive open space in the middle and its principle spaces, architectures and waterways articulate the sacred animal form of the panther.

H.

This city begins as the capital of the Fatimid Empire, before becoming the Mamluk capital. While it has the third largest mosque in Africa, it is home to many funerary monuments that orient the urban spaces in the old city.

I. These cities vary greatly, depending on what was there first. However, one of the defining characteristics is oreinting neghborhoods around sacred temples and markets. Formerly gridded streets begin to disappear as the city is re-oreinted towards protecting the privacy of extended families. Many streets have few windows or doors (oustide the markets) while the interior spaces are open and spacious.

J. The idea of moving from sacred space to sacred space along trade routes, creates its own urban systems. Small towns and temples appear one days walk from each other as religious travelers move from sacred site to sacred site, reinforcing the economic importance of relics and trade.

K. Also know as sun sun, this trading city had kings that when they died kept their land. New kings had to constantly conquer new territory.

L. Known by its Mexica name, this is one of the largest planned cities in the Americas. Its ritual temples were built over sacrifices and sacred caves. Originally brightly painted and oriented towards a sacred mountian.


QUESTION 9

1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Hinduism?

A. The worship of one god.

B. The inlfuence of Jainism, Buddhism, Vedism, Zoarastrianism, Vedism

C. The idea of a sacred river, that is manifest as a god

D. The importance of a sacred mountain as representative of the infinite universe.





QUESTION 10

1. Match the culture to the infrastructure or system that they are best known for

Hohokam

Inca

Dynastic China

Romans

Nabateans

Chacoans

Mongols

Nazca

A.

Possibly the largest canal system for farming in an arid landscape in the Americas

B.

40000 km of roads in four terrains at great height

C.

The Grand Canal, Great Walls and massive cities

D.

Aqueducts and architectural systems that can be repeated over a large territory

E.

Aqueducts and hidden cisterns in the desert

F.

Ritual spirit roads carved or marked straight for hundreds of miles

G.

Yam, a postal service that could move freely over thousands of miles

H.

Geoglyphs marking a sacred landscape



QUESTION 11

1. True or False: Plains Native people of North America always had horses (Extra Credit).

True

False

QUESTION 12

1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the “Gothic”

A. These soaring structures are meant to be experienced from the outside as objects and monuments framed in the open space in the city.

B. The structure is the scripture, religion is expressed through visual sculptural narratives.

C. The use of light is meant to represent Heaven given the darkness and short life of the war-weary times.

D. It could take a few decades to build or hundreds. Often the building was delayed by war, therefore the next stage was built in a more contemporary style. Hardly any are actually finished and many have been continually alteredNimes









QUESTION 13

True or False: Agriculture and urbanization is the longest human tradition (Extra Credit)

True

False












QUESTION 14

1. Match the site to the description that best described how it embodies the cosmology or religion

Angor Wat

The Pantheon

Hagia Sophia

Florence Cathedral

S. Apollinaire, Ravenna

The Churches of Rome

St. George, Lalibella

Mayan Ballcourt

Roman Temple

Greek Temple

Borobrodur

Temple of the Inscriptions, Palenque

The Abao

1568-1574 Sultan Selimeye Mosque

A.

This columned sacred space was oreinted along cardinal directions and inspired by the Etruscan practice of using the front porch as a stage for sacrifice and augury. These were stamped all over the empire.

B.

This columned sacred space was oriented towards the sunrise on the God’s birthday. Rituals were performed in front of the temple, that was usually brightly painted. Each one was custom.

C.

Built by three successive dynasties, this sacred site combines the narrative of ruler conquest with the creation narrative of the god Vishnu. It is surrounded by a massive barray representing the cosmic ocean. As you move towards the center the narrative and power get more and more intense. It was one of the largest cities in the world and ruled over an enormous engineered landscape

D.

A powerful banking family made rich by trade from east to west built the largest church in Christendom at the time to reinforce their city as a center of power. Its dome was the width of the Pantheon, however could not be built for a long time. The Dome is not a dome and is a complex structure of Gothic ribs reinforced by a series of stone, iron and wooden chains and thin heringbone stacked bricks.

E.

Its form is the back of a turtle in a primordial sea on whose back an all important God is born, based on a series of mythical stories about the origin of corn and the sun. The ritual game is a sacred event, where the captain has to be sacrificed to please the Gods.

F.

This rock carved church has little resemblence to the roman inspired early christian churches. It began as an artesianal well and the church was carved down to the level of the water

G.

This three tiered sacred Mountain, is a complete timeline of the history of its people and its most important King going back in time and forward into the far future. It was built to commemorate the end of war and to mark the sacred spring.The Priests would read this out to the people from the top.

H. This early church was built by the Goth Aryan Christian king of Italy using a number of early depictions of Chrerst, both with and without a beard, , where God occupies the seat of judgement and Christ is a figure enthroned. The scripture is depicted in pictures and allegories, not text. It was subsequently modified by Justinian and others. The city was once the center of an enlightened Gothic Empire.

I. This sacred mound is derived from a pile of stones over the dead, and also a representation of a sacred mountian and represents four secred elements. Adapted to Buddhism over time, it is still a place where one must dismount and add a rock.

J. The entire plateau is organized into a system of concentric circles with, at its center, Mount Meru. The bottom circle is strictly an account of experiences, the middle circle is all that man is taught, the highest circle is the sphere of revelation. This buddhist temple is one of the world’s largest mandelas, however it has been restored recently making its interpretation of the imagery difficult

K. This Church was built at the new center of an Empire. It was designed to represent the power of God with its massive dome that represented heaven appearing to float on a ring of light unsupported from below. Without changing its essential form, it became a Mosque when the city changed Empires. It illustrates the convergence of Roman engineering with Mesopotamian dome structures.

L. This unique structure was the centerpiece of a new city built adjacent to an ancient city. Unlike other temples it was oriented north so that the occulus in the dome could harness the movement of the sun. Its materials were harnessed from the entire Empire while its influences are largely from the East. Its vast coffered concrete dome inspired thousands of buildings for the next two millenium

M. These many sites were outside the old wall as you could not bury a body inside the Roma sacred border. These tombs for martyrs became the sites of pilgrimage churches over time, including the original S. Peters.

N. First grand building to be seen by Western travelers to Istanbul. Financed by plunder from the military campaign of Cyprus, it is a vertical triumph dedicated to the Glory of God and and its architect who finally built the largest dome



QUESTION 15

1. Match the following spaces or artifacts or types with the description.

Mount Meru

Sikhara

Garb Griha

Lingham

Chasqui

Quipu

Quibla Wall

The Nomad

Sipapu

Gargoyle

Puquois

Geoglyphs and Geograms

A.

This sacred niche held the sacred text and was almost always oreinted towards Mecca. In some Islamic cultures it is also a representation of heaven with a garden on the other side

B.

This is the idea of a womb chamber where the god can be born into the world. It occupies an empty space at the heart of a temple.

C.

This is the representation of the infinite universe. It is manifest as actual mountains and is where the gods live.

D.

These are spiral shaped wells for walking and driving wind into the underground reservoir

E.

This figure represented both the idea of the grotesque as a critique of power as well as the likely future for sinners.

F. This hole on the bottom of the Kiva represents the emergence from the earth Mothers womb

G. This human infrastructure is one of the keys to the empire’s power. He is sacred messenger who was able to run across roads carved into the mountains. Architectures were placed along his route in order to get him to his location quickly

H. This religious item and form can be traced back to the Harrapan culture. In its current use it represents a male sex aspect in a women’s aspect and is often at the center of a temple attended by preists ofr visible through a small window

I. These massive landscape markers are oriented towards celestial systems on the ground with rocks or moving rocks away from the surface

J. This temple form represents the Mount Meru cosmology and is often depicted as infinite levels with the abodes fo the gods or as vibrating with energy

K. This cultural type is found all over the world, and although they appear to be only mobile and pastoral they are the lynchpins on the global economy and have had an outsized influence on the world.

L. This system of knots was a form of communication and counting for a short-lived but powerful empire. Its use can be traced back to the earliest sites of this part of the world



QUESTION 16

1. True or False (Extra Credit): The Tomato has always been an important part of Italian Cuisine

Ture

False

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