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Alpha Beta Roleplay

Alpha Corporation is a Carlsbad CA based startup founded by two 28 year old former professional surfers. They recognized the growing drone marketplace and the problem that many drones are lost when crashing, especially into the ocean. They have developed unique software, called HomeBase, that allows a drone to restart after crashing, whether on water or land, to be able to rise and return to its home base. Their 1st generation drone, waterproof and crash worthy, received rave reviews for its HomeBase technology, but was severely criticized for its inferior camera and video capabilities. Recognizing that it needed to upgrade its camera technology for its 2nd generation drone, they have elected to license and purchase CCD camera modules from Camera Modules Corporation, a Japanese company and the leading player in that marketplace.

Alpha Corporation Information: Alpha has high expectations for its 2nd generation drone but understands that its funding is running dry so its success is crucial to its continuation as an entity and strategy of going public. It has expectations of selling 250K units over the next year and needs inventory immediately in order to timely complete orders to key distributors and retailers in the drone marketplace.

As a Southern California startup founded by surfers, its office is very informal with couches and no offices. Dress is consistent with the surf community, board shorts, flip flops and t shirts. In addition, the office has the following dynamics:

· All employees are expected and encouraged to participate in negotiations and offer their views.

· Ceremony and formal social rules are not followed. No importance is placed on tradition, seniority or experience.

· All employees are very friendly, outgoing, and easy going.

· Greeting are usually a high five or warm handshake, and on a first name basis.

· Discussions are direct and frank. Information is openly shared. They are aggressive in their approach to negotiations.

· All employees are skilled in persuasive communications and argument and come prepared to negotiations, with many alternatives prepared in advance of meetings.

· They are impatient. Time is of the essence. They want negotiations to move along at a fast pace and to close ASAP.

· All employees are emotional, openly displaying their happiness or frustration.

Camera Module Corporation Information: Camera Module is the leading company in the supply of camera modules (for phones, automobiles and drones); however, it lags behind some of its competitors in the drone marketplace because it is a small market with significant regulatory concerns and potential liability from its supply of the key component for drones. As a result, it has publicly announced its intention to enter the marketplace in full force and gain significant market share. It will only enter the drone marketplace if it can do so profitably and will change its announced plans if it cannot gain significant market share because the small drone marketplace poses significant liability risk. It is also very interested in Alpha because of its HomeBase technology and believes that Alpha is set up for success in this market. In fact, it has considered investing in the next round of capitalization of Alpha, although has not made those intentions known to Alpha.

As a Japanese company, following its cultural traditions is very important. Its employees recognize, respect and follow these cultural traditions including the following:

· All employees collectively work together to form consensus decision making.

· Seniority is highly respected regardless if the senior person is the most knowledgeable on the subject being negotiated. Many times when a consensus decision is not reached the senior member will make the final decision, although never in front of the other side which would embarrass his/her cohorts and go against the consensus decision making process.

· In group negotiations, they select a speaker for the group. This speaker may not be the senior most member, in fact may be the junior member or individual who speaks English best. The speaker may in fact not be the final decision maker.

· Employees are formal and indirect in their communications. They formally greet the other side with bows, presents, exchange of business cards and use of last names. They also avoid eye contact.

· Employees are unemotional and passive. Public displays of emotion and aggressive behavior are considered culturally unacceptable.

· Employees are very patient, comfortable with silence during negotiations, and in deferring decisions to another day.

Alpha-Beta
General Information and

Confidential Information for Alpha

By Thomas Gladwin

© 2010-2016 Dispute Resolution Research Center (DRRC), Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.
All rights reserved.

DRRC/KTAG teaching materials are protected by copyright law. DRRC requires a per person royalty for use of its exercises.
Each purchase of an exercise authorizes copying or electronic distribution of that exercise equal to the quantity purchased.

Access DRRC/KTAG materials at www.negotiationexercises.com Contact DRRC at [email protected]

Profile of Alpha, Inc.

Alpha, Inc. is a large, diversified electrical company
based in the nation of Alpha. The company plans to
become a leader in equipping the “factory of the
future” and is already one of the leading producers of
numerical control equipment. It has recently spent
hundreds of millions of dollars developing a factory
automation capability, including robotics and
computer aided design and manufacturing. Alpha,
Inc. has been acquiring companies, investing heavily
in new plants, and spending considerable sums on
product development. It has its own innovative robots
under development, some equipped with vision.
However, to meet its objective of quickly becoming a
global supplier of automation systems, Alpha, Inc.
has found it necessary to link-up with foreign firms
that are further down the robotics learning curve.

Robotics in nation of Alpha

There are 30 robotics manufacturers in Alpha. Use
and production of robots in Alpha is only about a
third of what it is in the nation of Beta. One survey
reported that 1,269 robots were produced in Alpha in
1990; the survey also revealed that 4,370 robots were
in use in Alpha in 1990, mainly in the auto and
foundry industries. Robot sales in that year were
estimated to be $92 million, with a significant share
accounted for by imports. The industrial automation
market in Alpha is growing at well over 20% a year.
The robotics portion of it is expected to become a $2
billion a year domestic market by 2000.

Profile of Beta, Inc.

Beta, Inc. is the leading manufacturer of integrated
electrical equipment in the nation of Beta. The
company has been run by scientists since its founding
and is Beta’s most research-oriented corporation: it
employs more than 9,000 researchers and its R&D
spending equals 5.9% of corporate sales. Beta, Inc.’s
strategy is to become the world’s largest producer of
robotics in the next few years. To meet this goal,
Beta, Inc. will have to double its manufacturing
capacity and develop a strong export market. To date,
nearly all of Beta, Inc.’s robotics production has been
sold domestically. The company’s deep commitment
to robotics is reflected in the recent formation of a
large task force to develop a universal assembly robot
with both visual and tactile sensors. Beta, Inc.
expects to be using the new robots for some 60% of
its in-house assembly operations within three years.

Robotics in nation of Beta

1) There are 150 companies making or selling
robots in Beta. The nation has “robot fever” and a
government that has declared automation to be a
national goal. An estimated 12,000 to 14,000
programmable robots are already on the job in Beta,
representing 59% of those in use worldwide. Betan
firms churned out nearly $400 million worth of
robots in 1990 (approximately 3,200 units). The
nation exported only 2.5% of its production and
imported less than 5% of its robots. Industry analysts
see robot production in Beta rising to $2 billion in
1995 and $5 billion in 2000.

Alpha-Beta
Role of Alpha

By Thomas Gladwin

© 2010 Dispute Resolution Research Center, Northwestern University. All rights reserved.

The Dispute Resolution Research Center (DRRC) requires a per person royalty for use of its exercises. This exercise may not
be reproduced, revised, translated, or posted electronically without authorization from DRRC. Any use of DRRC exercises
without authorization is a violation of copyright law.

Access DRRC materials at http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/drrc/teaching/index.htm.
Questions? Contact DRRC at [email protected], Tel: 847-491-8068, Fax: 847-467-5700.

Five months ago, your firm approached and held
preliminary discussions with Beta, Inc. on a possible
robot manufacturing and marketing relationship.
Some tentative understandings have been reached
regarding the general nature of a collaborative
arrangement, but a number of specific details still
need to be worked out. Your bargaining team will be
going to Beta to discuss these points with Beta, Inc.
You would like, if possible, to wrap up the deal on
this trip.

Your long-range strategic objective is to become a
profitable, innovative, global, full-service supplier of
automation equipment and systems. You believe
leadership in equipping the “factory of the future”
will come by putting more pieces of the automation
puzzle together than any other firm. You believe that
the key to success in this business lies in having a
broad range of models to offer industrial customers.
You have also determined that you must get into the
market now, not five years from now. You must
accumulate experience and establish yourself as the
first and favored supplier to those companies turning
to automation to boost their quality and productivity.

Top management has considered a variety of options
with respect to achieving these goals. It has
concluded, for example, that the company’s own
robotics program is developing too slowly. Exciting
robots will definitely be coming out of Alpha Inc’s
labs and into production in 2 to 3 years, but at the
moment, the company cannot rely on in-house
capabilities. In order to establish an initial market
presence, to learn the business, and to bridge the
transitional R & D gap, Alpha must acquire and
exploit the leading edge robotics technology of other
firms.

Licensing high quality technology from leading
foreign firms seems to be the best strategy. Alpha,
Inc.’s unique strategic advantage is its experience
installing factory automation systems and its large
industrial sales, distribution and service network.

These qualifications have made Alpha an attractive
potential partner in the eyes of a number of foreign
robotics producers, including Beta, Inc., a leader in
the field. Beta, Inc. is producing a variety of high
quality and cost competitive robots.

In preliminary talks with Beta, Inc., it was agreed 1)
that the relationship will be for 5 years; 2) that
initially Alpha, Inc. will receive fully assembled
robots from Beta, Inc.’s current model lines which
will be sold under Alpha, Inc.’s name; 3) that later on
Alpha, Inc. will begin to assemble robots using Beta,
Inc. technology and components; 4) that the
agreement will be non exclusive, meaning that Beta,
Inc. can enter Alpha, Inc.’s markets directly at any
time and can also enter into relationships with other
firms in Alpha.

Four issues still need to be decided:
1. The number of different models involved. You
would like the number to be 8; you will take 6 only
as a last resort.

Your interest in so many models is in line with
Alpha’s “supermarket of automation” strategy. Fewer
models means that several different manufacturers’
robots may be needed to automate a factory. This will
increase the transaction costs of putting together a
system for a customer as well as the costs to service
and maintain equipment supplied by many different
manufacturers.

2. The number of Beta, Inc. units to be imported
and/or produced under license by Alpha. You
would like that number to be 150 of each model, a
total of 1200 each year.

While you believe that Alpha, Inc.’s share of the
market will be at least 1200 robots a year, you do not
want to be overextended and have to maintain Beta,
Inc.’s expensive robots in inventory. You know that
Beta has a commitment to increase its manufacturing
capacity and you are confident that as your sales

3 Alpha Beta/Alpha

volume increases, Beta, Inc. will be able to increase
production. Thus, while you do not want to commit
to more than 1200 robots the first year, you anticipate
being able to sell as many as 2000 per year after the
first year.

3. The matter of technology sharing. Beta, Inc. is
aware of your research on artificial vision for robots.
They do not know that you anticipate that 4 more
years of development will be necessary before robots
with artificial vision will be ready for commercial
use. You do not want to share this technology with
Beta, Inc. because you think that it may be Alpha,
Inc.’s unique technological contribution to robotics.

However, if Alpha, Inc. is to develop its own robotics
manufacturing capacity, assistance from a company
like Beta, Inc., which is already manufacturing robots
in volume, will greatly reduce the learning curve.
Beta, Inc. has already agreed in principle to assist
Alpha, Inc. in developing the capacity to assemble
Beta, Inc. robots during the latter part of the licensing
agreement. You want a firm commitment as to when
this transfer of technology will occur.

You may have to provide limited access to the
artificial vision technology in order to get access to
the assembly technology.

4. The royalty rate. You are willing to pay a 3%
royalty on gross sales of Beta, Inc.’s robots. If
necessary, you can go as high as 7% if Beta, Inc.
agrees to your demands on items 1, 2 and 3 above.

While there are other robotics manufacturers, Beta,
Inc. is the only producer with a full product line. If no
agreement can be reached with Beta, Inc. you will
have to negotiate with at least two other producers in
order to have a full product line. This will cause a
delay in the implementation of Alpha, Inc.’s strategy
to be the premier provider of factory automation.

The Alphan Negotiating Style

Negotiators from the Alphan culture typically employ
a style (i.e. a set of behaviors) that is individualistic,
informal, direct, impatient, emotional, and
aggressive. Your team should exhibit this style in
your bargaining with Beta, Inc. Guidelines for how to
do so are provided below. Discuss each guideline as a
group and plan how each will be followed in the
negotiating session.

In your negotiations you must:
1. Behave Individualistically: Initiative and
creativity is valued in the Alphan culture. Each

Alphan negotiating team member is expected to
contribute to the negotiation. When a team member
has an idea, he or she is expected to speak up. Any
team member may make a proposal in the
negotiation.

2. Behave Informally: Alpha is an egalitarian
culture and Alphans do not attach much importance
or significance to ceremony, tradition, or formalized
social rules. They consider formality and protocol to
be pompous and arrogant. Alphans are easy-going,
casual, relaxed, and friendly people; they love to kid
and joke around. Alphans greet people, with whom
they expect to do business with a warm handshake
and introductions, focusing on first names. Their
business cards typically do not describe their roles on
the negotiating team, and they are unlikely to offer
them.

3. Behave Directly: Alphans value directness and
honesty. They prefer to open the negotiation with a
frank discussion of the issues and the parties’
interests. They are willing to share information and
expect the other side to reciprocate and share
information in response. They will typically have
prepared several proposals for settlement: an
optimistic, even unrealistic opening offer, several
concessions and a bottom line. Everyone understands
that Alphans’ first offer is likely to be an exaggeration
of their true bottom line, and such opening offers are
not considered inconsistent with the Alphans’ basic
value for honesty and directness. Alphans are skilled
in persuasive communication and argument. They
will be prepared to argue why their proposal is the
best agreement possible.

4. Behave Impatiently: To be idle is wasteful and
nonproductive in the Alphan culture — “time is
money”. Alphans like the negotiation to move along
at a reasonable pace, with information being shared
first, and then alternative proposals discussed and a
series of concessions made. Alphans become
impatient when negotiations slow down. They will
question the sincerity of the other party if that party is
perceived to be “dragging his feet”. Different Alphan
team members may take over from each other to try
to get the negotiation to move along.

5. Behave Emotionally: Alphans are a highly
emotional people. They display happiness and
friendliness both in their facial expressions and in
their body language. They will also express
frustration and disappointment; however, true anger
is typically suppressed except in the presence of
closely related others. When anger is expressed in
transactional negotiations (as opposed to negotiations
to resolve a dispute), it is usually an Alphan

4 Alpha Beta/Alpha

negotiating tactic intended to intimidate the other
party.

6. Behave Aggressively: Alphans are self-confident.
They like to take the initiative in negotiation. They

are comfortable speaking up and will argue
persuasively for their positions, even to the point of
emphasizing the benefits of a position to the other
party. Alphans will use threats if necessary to
accomplish their ends.

Alpha-Beta
General Information and

Confidential Information for Beta

By Thomas Gladwin

© 2010-2016 Dispute Resolution Research Center (DRRC), Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.
All rights reserved.

DRRC/KTAG teaching materials are protected by copyright law. DRRC requires a per person royalty for use of its exercises.
Each purchase of an exercise authorizes copying or electronic distribution of that exercise equal to the quantity purchased.

Access DRRC/KTAG materials at www.negotiationexercises.com Contact DRRC at [email protected]

Profile of Alpha, Inc.

Alpha, Inc. is a large, diversified electrical company
based in the nation of Alpha. The company plans to
become a leader in equipping the “factory of the
future” and is already one of the leading producers of
numerical control equipment. It has recently spent
hundreds of millions of dollars developing a factory
automation capability, including robotics and
computer aided design and manufacturing. Alpha,
Inc. has been acquiring companies, investing heavily
in new plants, and spending considerable sums on
product development. It has its own innovative robots
under development, some equipped with vision.
However, to meet its objective of quickly becoming a
global supplier of automation systems, Alpha, Inc.
has found it necessary to link-up with foreign firms
that are further down the robotics learning curve.

Robotics in nation of Alpha

There are 30 robotics manufacturers in Alpha. Use
and production of robots in Alpha is only about a
third of what it is in the nation of Beta. One survey
reported that 1,269 robots were produced in Alpha in
1990; the survey also revealed that 4,370 robots were
in use in Alpha in 1990, mainly in the auto and
foundry industries. Robot sales in that year were
estimated to be $92 million, with a significant share
accounted for by imports. The industrial automation
market in Alpha is growing at well over 20% a year.
The robotics portion of it is expected to become a $2
billion a year domestic market by 2000.

Profile of Beta, Inc.

Beta, Inc. is the leading manufacturer of integrated
electrical equipment in the nation of Beta. The
company has been run by scientists since its founding
and is Beta’s most research-oriented corporation: it
employs more than 9,000 researchers and its R&D
spending equals 5.9% of corporate sales. Beta, Inc.’s
strategy is to become the world’s largest producer of
robotics in the next few years. To meet this goal,
Beta, Inc. will have to double its manufacturing
capacity and develop a strong export market. To date,
nearly all of Beta, Inc.’s robotics production has been
sold domestically. The company’s deep commitment
to robotics is reflected in the recent formation of a
large task force to develop a universal assembly robot
with both visual and tactile sensors. Beta, Inc.
expects to be using the new robots for some 60% of
its in-house assembly operations within three years.

Robotics in nation of Beta

1) There are 150 companies making or selling
robots in Beta. The nation has “robot fever” and a
government that has declared automation to be a
national goal. An estimated 12,000 to 14,000
programmable robots are already on the job in Beta,
representing 59% of those in use worldwide. Betan
firms churned out nearly $400 million worth of
robots in 1990 (approximately 3,200 units). The
nation exported only 2.5% of its production and
imported less than 5% of its robots. Industry analysts
see robot production in Beta rising to $2 billion in
1995 and $5 billion in 2000.

Alpha-Beta
Role of Beta

By Thomas Gladwin

© 2010-2016 Dispute Resolution Research Center (DRRC), Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.
All rights reserved.

DRRC/KTAG teaching materials are protected by copyright law. DRRC requires a per person royalty for use of its exercises.
Each purchase of an exercise authorizes copying or electronic distribution of that exercise equal to the quantity purchased.

Access DRRC/KTAG materials at www.negotiationexercises.com Contact DRRC at [email protected]

Five months ago, your firm was approached by and
held preliminary discussions with Alpha, Inc. on a
possible robotics manufacturing and marketing
relationship. Some tentative understandings have
been reached regarding the general nature of a
collaborative arrangement, but a number of specific
details still need to be worked out. The Alpha, Inc.
bargaining team will be arriving in Beta to discuss
these points with you.

Beta, Inc.’s strategic plan calls for significantly
boosting overseas sales of robots so as to attain
greater scale economies in production. You
especially want to develop a presence in the currently
small but rapidly growing Alphan market. This
requires a high quality industrial sales, distribution,
and service network. You have considered the
options of exporting directly to, or establishing a joint
venture with, or wholly-owned subsidiary in, Alpha.
However, given the large cultural differences
between Alpha and Beta, the difficulties of servicing
robots from overseas, and the rapid technological
change in robotics, Beta, Inc. has decided (as have
other Betan robot producers) that the Alphan market
at this time can probably best be served via a
licensing arrangement with a local Alphan company.
You can offer that company proven, high quality
robotics, either in the form of fully assembled units
or the technology and components needed to
assemble them.

Alpha, Inc. looks like an ideal candidate to become
your licensee — it has the desired technical
competence, industrial marketing expertise, service
network, quality control, distribution system, general
management and business reputation. You are a bit
concerned, however, that by helping Alpha, Inc. you
may create a competitive monster that may come
back to haunt you in the future.

In preliminary talks with Alpha, Inc., it was agreed:
1) that the relationship will be for 5 years; 2) that
initially Alpha, Inc. will receive fully assembled

robots from Beta, Inc.’s current model lines which
will be sold under Alpha, Inc.’s name; 3) that later on
Alpha, Inc. will begin to assemble robots using Beta,
Inc. technology and components; 4) that the
agreement will be non exclusive, meaning that Beta,
Inc. can enter Alpha, Inc.’s markets directly at any
time and can also enter into relationships with other
firms in Alpha.

Four issues still need to be decided:
1) The number of different models to provide to
Alpha, Inc. You currently have eight models in
production. You would like to provide Alpha with
only four of them for the following reasons:
Supplying Alpha, Inc. with robots will require
increasing production capacity. You would like to
control capital expenditures by phasing in the
increased capacity. You are also concerned about
increasing capacity to service Alpha, Inc.’s sales and
then losing the need for that capacity when Alpha
begins to assembling robots itself. If Alpha insists on
more than four models, the volume of each model
purchased must be sufficient to realize economies of
scale and utilize increased production capacity.

2) The number of Beta, Inc. units to be imported
by Alpha each year. In order to realize economies of
scale you would like the number to be 300 of each
model. Your reason for entering into this licensing
agreement with Alpha, Inc. is to implement your
strategy of rapid growth and deep penetration. If
Alpha, Inc. cannot meet these strategic objectives,
they are not a strategic fit.

3) The matter of technology sharing. You very
much want access to Alpha, Inc.’s artificial vision
technology. You are certain that with your
manufacturing expertise and your line of universal
assembly robots, you and Alpha, Inc. could be the
first to market low cost, universal robots with vision.
This is the most important issue for you.

3 Alpha Beta/Beta

At the prior meeting you agreed with extreme
reluctance to help Alpha develop its own robotics
manufacturing processes. Just when this transfer of
technology will occur was left open. If Alpha, Inc.
does not mention it, you will not bring it up. You will
only make a firm commitment regarding the transfer
of manufacturing technology if you get access to
their artificial vision technology and you are able to
hold down the number of models provided to Alpha,
Inc. thereby controlling capital expenditure costs.

4) The royalty rate. You believe a rate of 5% on
gross sales is just and reasonable. If absolutely
necessary you might consider a royalty rate as low as
3% in order to get access to the artificial vision
technology.

While there are other potential distributors for your
robotics, no other organization in the world has
adopted Alpha, Inc.’s strategy of being a full-service
supplier of automation equipment. If no agreement
with Alpha, Inc. is forthcoming, you will have to
reach distribution agreements with several other
organizations in order to have the distribution
capacity that your strategy requires. This will delay
the implementation of Beta, Inc.’s strategy, since to
date no negotiations have been held with other
distributors.

The Betan Negotiating Style

Negotiators from the Betan culture typically employ
a style (i.e. a set of behaviors) that is collective,
formal, indirect, patient, unemotional, and passive.
Your team should exhibit this style in your
bargaining with Alpha, Inc. Guidelines for how to do
so are provided below. Discuss each guideline as a
group and plan how each will be followed in the
negotiating session.

In your negotiations you must:
1) Behave Collectively: Betans work together as a
group. All Betan decisions must be reached
collectively. In preparation for negotiation, Betans
agree as a group about their interests and priorities.
They also decide who is to speak for the group on
what topic. One team member may open the
negotiation (see below), another lead the questioning,
another indicate that acceding to Alpha’s proposals
would be difficult, and another make the final
commitment to agreement. Team members only
speak on their topics. However, all decisions are to be
made collectively. If all of the members of the Betan
negotiation team cannot agree, then the team will
defer making the decision.

2) Behave Formally: Beta is a hierarchical,
status-oriented culture. Betans attach considerable
importance to customs, rules, and ceremonies. They
bow in greeting rather than shake hands. They use
last names only. They exchange business cards.
During the negotiation, they sit erect, eyes looking
down.

3) Behave Indirectly: Betans prefer to start
negotiations with a presentation which discusses the
Betan company, its general goals in the market,
agreements made to date, and optimism for the future
relationship. (The purpose is to convey the
importance of their organization and its commitment
to the issues under negotiation.) At this point, Betans
would be likely to inquire about the comfort of the
other side, the quality of their accommodations, their
experience sightseeing, and the difficulties the trip
may be placing on their families. (The purpose of this
is to begin to build a relationship with the other side.)
Betans are then likely to begin to ask questions about
the negotiation issues. Betans are information
hungry, but not very forthcoming with information.
After the other side has answered the question,
Betans may respond by asking another question,
repeating the question, or just remaining silent. They
are unlikely to offer information in return. Betans
often ask for information to be repeated. (Betans are
searching for areas of agreement between the two
sides. In the Betan culture, it is inappropriate to
promote your own positions; rather, Betans listen
until they hear where positions come together.)
Betans often use the word “yes” and nod to indicate
not agreement, but understanding. They seldom use
the word “no”, but might say “that would be
difficult”. (Betans value relationships and to be
completely negative would not be relating
sympathetically to the other side.)

4) Behave Patiently: Patience is a virtue in Beta.
Since it is culturally inappropriate to promote ones
own ideas, Betans will wait patiently until the other
side suggests something that is acceptable. Betans’
patience is fortified by their strong belief that they are
a moral people, and that their goals are both right and
fair. As a result, Betans seldom make any
concessions except at the very end of the negotiation.

5) Behave Unemotionally: Betans value highly
self-control, and are trained from childhood not to
show emotion. Public display of emotion is believed
to lead to confrontation and conflict, which may
interfere with normal, cooperative social relation-
ships. Betans do not show their frustration with or
distaste of others’ negotiating behavior. Their faces
will be immobile and impassive.

4 Alpha Beta/Beta

6) Behave Passively: Betans consider the
aggressive, persuasive negotiator, skilled in
argumentation, as superficial, insincere, and vulgar.

When confronted with such a negotiator, or one using
threats or other crude tactics, Betans retreat to
silence.

  • 1) There are 150 companies making or selling robots in Beta. The nation has “robot fever” and a government that has declared automation to be a national goal. An estimated 12,000 to 14,000 programmable robots are already on the job in Beta, representi…
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