Minimum Requirements


Minimum Requirements

The purpose of this document is to serve as a guide in assembling your proposal when you are completing it
both in the RPM, and RPT courses.
The aim of the thesis proposal is to demonstrate:

 The topic matches your interests and capability to carry out the research
 There is a need for the research; it is significant, and related to your program of study;
 Your proposal will contribute to the body of knowledge in the field;
 The ethical issues have been considered.
 The topic is feasible in terms of the availability of resources, population, supervisor, and data collection;
 The research and thesis can be completed within a 12 month timeframe

Completed research proposals address what you propose to study, why the issue or problem is important to
study, and how you think you will conduct your study.
The length of the proposal in the Research Process Methodology (RPM) course must be 16-20 pages, without
the title page, table of contents, and references, and adhere to APA 6th edition formatting. It must include:

1. A Title Page, and Table of Contents
2. An Introduction that describes the current conditions in the field
3. A Problem Definition in which you describe (a) the problem or opportunity your study will address and

why it is significant, (b) the purpose of your study (the gap in current knowledge that it will fill), and (c)
the specific research question(s) that your study will attempt to answer.

4. A comprehensive Literature Review based primarily on peer- reviewed articles.
5. Methodology and Method. This should be a one paragraph, brief mention of whether you envision this

study being quantitative or qualitative, what data you envision collecting from whom or what, and what
you think you will do with your data once you collect it.

6. References using APA Style.
Your thesis proposal should introduce the reader to the topic and give a complete picture of the background
of the problem you want to investigate, the purpose of your study, and your research question(s). It is
primarily a compilation of all the class assignments which are clearly outlined in the course syllabus, put into
a presentation format and written clearly, logically, and coherently. It may serve as the basis for your future
research and may be used to “sell” your idea to a potential a supervisor. Your thesis proposal must
demonstrate clarity of thought and an ability to engage in meaningful research. It must also interest and
excite the reader so that he/she is motivated to consider being your thesis supervisor.

The length of the proposal in
the RPT course should be
from 32-40 pages, without the
title pages, table of contents,
and references.
You will augment your RPM
proposal based on new
material covered in the course,
particularly in terms of your
research methodology, and
data collection and analysis
plan. On the date specified by
your instructor, you will
submit your first draft of the
RPT Proposal by depositing it
in the appropriate Drop Box.
By the end of the RPT course,
you should have a preliminary,
but complete draft of Chapter
3 – Research Design and


Methodology, and a revised
complete draft of Chapters 1
and 2. Students, who are on
track for an IP in the RPT
course, will be allowed to
pursue acquiring a Thesis
supervisor upon completion of
Chapter. The instructor will
ascertain your readiness to
attain a supervisor, and
notify you. Except for
revisions or additions by your
supervisor, and applying for
UCAIHS exemption with the
department, you should be
ready to begin collecting data,
analyzing the data, and writing
your conclusions.

i. Title pages
a. A Working Title and your name on a separate cover page (with no page number)
b. A Table of Contents (separate page)

i. Title pages:
Add your supervisor’s
name (when you get
one) and the date of
submission (month,
day and year). Each
time you submit a
revised proposal,
please change the date.

In addition, you will add
separate pages for:

ii. Dedication (optional)
iii. Declaration
iv. Acknowledgements

RPM and RPT: THESIS Requirements (rev. March, 2014)


Abbreviations or
Symbols (if needed)

v. Glossary (if needed)
1. Introduction (RPM: 2-4 pages):

1.1. Describe the Broad Issues and Current Conditions in the Field You are Researching.

Refer to previous research and statistics to illustrate the scope and importance of the current problems and
opportunities, using in-text citations to support all factual statements.

The purpose of the Introduction is to provide background for the reader. Do not discuss what you plan to

Assume the reader is not an expert in your area so define terms as needed.

Note: It usually is easier to write this section last, after all the others.

This should include the significance for why this research is needed.

8 pages):
1.1. Update the Introduction,
as needed, based on any new
information you obtain.

RPM and RPT: THESIS Requirements (rev. March, 2014)


1.2 Problem Definition (RPM: 2-3 pages):

1.2.1 Formal Problem Statement:

Describe the specific issue or concern you will address and why. Describe how it relates to the broader
issues in the field, linking back to the general overview you provided in the Introduction.

Explain why there is a sense of urgency to addressing the problem. Narrow and refine the problem

1.2. Problem Definition
(RPT: 3 – 5 pages):
1.21. Formal Problem
Update if needed.

1.3 Purpose of Study:

The purpose statement reminds the reader of the current gap in knowledge of the problem that your
study will fill. Develop a purpose statement that addresses the problem. Begin this section with “The
purpose or objective of this study will be to:

In a qualitative study, the purpose might be to understand or discover or explore or examine the
meaning of or report” etc.

In a quantitative study, the purpose might be to compare different groups or to study or determine the
relationship among variables.

1.2. Purpose of the Study

Update if needed.

1.4 Research Question(s):
Summarize the purpose of your study into one or two overarching research questions: “What do I
want to know?” This is the question that your study will attempt to answer. At the conclusion of your
study, you will need to convince the reader that you were able to answer it. Research questions are
more focused than your purpose statement. Identify the research questions that are tied to the
purpose of the study, and when answered, shed light on the problem.

1.4 Research Question(s):
Update if needed

RPM and RPT: THESIS Requirements (rev. March, 2014)


1.3.1 1.5 Theoretical Framework (if quantitative) or Philosophical Research Paradigm (if qualitative)
1.3.2 RPM: 1-2 pages.

The theoretical framework or philosophical research paradigm describes the underlying logic or structure of
your study.
Theoretical Framework (Quantitative):
Provide operational definitions of all the variables in your study (IV, DV, MV and IIV, if any). Also,
describe in detail any models or theories that are being tested.
Refer back to the literature, as applicable, to show the relevance of these concepts and variables for your
study. You need to make a convincing case as to why you chose these variables out of all existing variables
to include in your study. Why do you think these are the most important ones?
If you are conducting a hypothesis-testing study, list each hypothesis here. Show BOTH the null and
alternative hypothesis. Hypotheses can be descriptive or relational but must be written in a way that makes
them testable (i.e. you will be able to gather evidence that supports or fails to support each hypothesis).
They are the “educated guesses” as to the answers to your research questions.


Philosophical Research Paradigm (Qualitative):
Describe your “worldview” or framework of beliefs, values and methods within which your research will
take place, e.g. constructivist, pragmatic, etc.. See the Creswell book, and the handouts under “Resources”
for detailed information.

1.5 Theoretical Framework
(if quantitative) or
Philosophical Research
Paradigm (if qualitative)
RPT: 2-4 pages.
Theoretical Framework
Update as needed. For RPT
you MUST add a schematic
diagram showing the predicted
relationships among the
variables in your study. If you
are doing a descriptive study
with no predicted
relationships, include the
variables that you plan to
examine initially in a diagram.

Philosophical Research
Paradigm (Qualitative):
Update if needed

RPM and RPT: THESIS Requirements (rev. March, 2014)


2. Literature Review (RPM: 10 – 12 pages)

2.1 Introduction. It is important to have a good introduction that clearly tells the reader what the
literature review will be about, and its central themes or organizational pattern. Point out overall
trends in what has been published about the topic, and explain the criteria you have used to analyze
and compare the literature you reviewed.

The literature review is a critical look at the existing research which is related your research study. It
is important for you to read and analyze everything that could be related to your research questions.
After completing a literature review you should be able to identify the prominent authors and texts that are
related to your topic, and area of study. The literature review may include both the research (empirical or
analytical) on your topic, and theoretical works related to your topic.

The literature review is used as the basis for your Introduction’s brief description of the background of your
study, to identify research trends or areas of interest that are relevant to your study, and to find potential gaps
in the existing body of knowledge.

There is no one way to conduct a literature review, but this section should be done in a systematic
fashion to capture, evaluate and summarize the literature. Creswell (2013) has a 7 step plan to follow
that could be used. Include at least 30 high quality citations, and at least 50% of them should be peer-
reviewed academic references.

(RPT: 12 -14 pages)
Update as needed based on
any new information you
obtain, or may need.

RPM and RPT: THESIS Requirements (rev. March, 2014)


3. Research Methodology (RPM: 1 paragraph):

3.1. Methodology. This should be a one paragraph, and a brief mention of whether you envision this
study being quantitative or qualitative, what data you envision collecting from whom or what e.g.
interviews, surveys, document review, etc. Make reference back to the Theoretical Framework (if
quantitative) or Philosophical Research Paradigm (if qualitative), you mentioned earlier. Your study’s
purpose, research questions, and research methodology are connected. The research methodology
you choose is the one that best fulfills the purpose of the study, and answers the researcher questions.

6 pages):
Describe the type of study
(exploratory, descriptive,
hypothesis-testing or case
analysis), type of investigation
(qualitative, quantitative or
mixed), extent of researcher
interference, study setting, unit
of analysis, and time horizon.
Be sure to address each of
these in your proposal.
If you are collecting
qualitative data, you MUST
address the issues of
“Reflexivity” and “Ethical
Considerations” as a
researcher. Describe the past
experiences that led to picking
this topic and your
connections to the participants,
if any (e.g. co-workers). Be
explicit about your views and
values, potential biases, and
anything in your history or
world view that might shape
the interpretation of the data
you collect.

Continued on next page …

RPM and RPT: THESIS Requirements (rev. March, 2014)


3.1 Data Collection Plan
Describe the sources of your
data and how you plan to
collect and record the data.
Sources typically are either
people participating in your
study, documents, events,
activities or a mixture of these.
If you are working with
people, describe the sample
you plan to target, e.g.
members of a certain
professional organization. If
you are analyzing documents,
describe the types of
documents you plan to access,
such as internal company
reports. If you are observing
an event or activity, describe
it, e.g. inquiries made to a help
Describe how you plan to
gather your data, interviews,
questionnaires, observation,
focus groups, document
review, etc.
Describe your sampling plan,
probability, non-probability,
etc., and how you plan to
record your data, online
software, note-taking,
journals, recordings, etc.

RPM and RPT: THESIS Requirements (rev. March, 2014)


3.2 Data Analysis Plan:
Quantitative data: Describe
the statistical analysis you will
conduct to test your
hypotheses, or, if you do not
have formal hypotheses, to
answer each of your research
questions. For each question,
indicate the statistical tests you
plan to use either to test for
group differences or to test for
significant relationships
among your variables.
Describe how you plan to
measure the reliability and
validity of your data. The
reliability of the research
instrument tests how
consistent the instrument is in
measuring outcomes. The
validity of the research
instrument measures whether
an instrument is actually
measuring the item intended.
Qualitative data: Describe
how you will code the data,
identify patterns and themes,
and summarize and interpret
the results. Describe how you
will assess Trustworthiness —
Reliability in qualitative
research is an examination of

RPM and RPT: THESIS Requirements (rev. March, 2014)


Trustworthiness of a research
study concerns the issues
conventionally discussed as
validity and reliability in a
quantitative research study.
Therefore, the examination of
trustworthiness is crucial to
ensure confirmability in
qualitative research.
Confirmability is a way to
support the argument that the
research findings are worth
paying attention to. One way
of achieving confirmability in
qualitative research is the use
of triangulation or
crystallization. Triangulation
uses multiple sources of data
from different places.

3.3 Estimated Timeline
Provide a timeline listing the
order for all the major steps of
the study and indicate the
approximate amount of time
needed for each step.

RPM and RPT: THESIS Requirements (rev. March, 2014)


References and Bibliography (RPM: 4 pages)

You should use RefWorks, Mendeley, Papers, or any other reference / pdf management or reference
toolt to assist in compiling your preliminary list of references you used during your initial literature
review. There should be a mix of peer-reviewed academic publications, journals, trade magazines,
books, magazines, periodicals, and electronic resources. All references listed here should refer back to
the in-text citations you have throughout your paper. You should have at least 30 high-quality
citations with at least 50% of them academic peer-reviewed articles on your topic to demonstrate your
knowledge of the scholarly literature.

Follow APA Style, 6th edition, for your in-text citations and References.

of Proposal (RPT: 2 pages)
Someone should be able to
read your summary and
understand your research plan
without reading the entire
proposal. Therefore, it must
include the problem to be
studied, the main findings
from the literature review, the
research question, hypotheses
(if any), research
methodology, data collection
and analysis plan, and

References and Bibliography
(RPT: 4 – 8 pages)
Update if needed.

RPM and RPT: THESIS Requirements (rev. March, 2014)

  • The purpose of the Introduction is to provide background for the reader. Do not discuss what you plan to do.


Child – Under Covid 19 End Hunger and achieve food security

Research Process & Methodology

Ruijia Liang

November 11, 2021


Child hunger and food insecurity are major problems affecting many countries across the world particularly in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic. Food security is characterized as the capacity to have social, physical, and monetary admittance to protected, adequate, and nutritious food among all individuals and the capacity to meet their dietary and inclinations for a solid life. In accomplishing the objective of the paper, the paper inspects different components of the two procedures: supplemental nourishment program helps and transforming the business sectors and how they can add to the disposal of the youngster hunger issue in the general public. In all the previous exploration, there has been a nitty-gritty clarification on the effect of SNAP procedure in the United States and the job of market changes in upgrading the reasonableness of items. Be that as it may, there is least examination specifying manners by which the systems can be applied in low-pay nations whose pervasiveness of kid yearning and food weakness is higher. The review will concentrate on deciding how end-kid appetite and food security can be accomplished using SNAP and transforming the market under Covid-19.

Key Words
: Food security, child hunger, market reforms.

Table of Content

Table of Contents
1 Introduction 4
1.1 Background 4
1.2 Problem Definition 5
1.2.1 Formal Problem Statement 6
1.3 Purpose of Study 7
1.4 Research question 7
1.5 Theoretical Framework 8
2.0. Literature Review 8
2.1. Introduction 8
2.2. Food insecurity and child hunger in Covid-19 8
2.2.1. The already food insecurity problem before the pandemic 8
2.2.2. Food price level in the global market 10
2.2.3. Food insecurity 10
2.2.4. Child hunger 11
2.2.5. Covid-19 and child hunger 12
2.2.6. Impact of the pandemic 13
2.2.7. The global pandemic and economic conditions causing food insecurity 15
2.3. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) 17
2.4. Market reforms 18
2.5. Establishing research gap 19
3 Research Methodology 19
References 20

1 Introduction

1.1 Background

Child hunger has been one of the major health problems in various parts of the world. With the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, the problem increased severity as more members of the society suffered the blow. Some of the international organizations such as the United Nations raising concerns over the need to enhance collaborative approaches in dealing with the issue. Food security is defined as the ability to have social, physical, and economic access to safe, sufficient, and nutritious food among all people and the ability to meet their dietary and preferences for a healthy life (Poole et al, 2021). With some countries having poor economic growth and economic sustainability, child hunger remains a dominant issue. Child hunger not only affects the physical health and development of the child but also the social and intellectual capacities (Jones et al, 2018). Even short-term food insecurity can lead to long-term developmental, psychological, physical, and emotional damage. Compared with children from high-income families, children in low-income families have a higher risk of poorer health and academic performance, but undernutrition may be further disadvantaged (Dunn,2020). And during the Covid 19, with school closures, low-income families with children who depend on school meals face a higher risk of hunger (Fang, 2021).

“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (Declaration, R., 1996). It is necessary to pay attention to some of the factors that cause child hunger when we try to be understanding the response to child hunger and the realization of food security and necessary interventions. Once the root cause of a problem is identified, it becomes easier to determine interventions to address the problem completely. Also, it is important to determine the stakeholders involved in the food security program and the roles each stakeholder should play in eliminating the child hunger problem. This provides a comprehensive analysis that can be used in ensuring children across the world have access to nutritious food and all dietary needs necessary for a healthy life are provided for (Qaim, 2020).

1.2 Problem Definition

There has been a problem in the need to eliminate food insecurity and child hunger contributed by the pandemic. Child hunger and food insecurity has been a global problem affecting many countries even before the emergence of Covid-19 pandemic. However, the pandemic increased the severity of the problem. This has risen the need to develop policies that address the child hunger and food insecurity problem.

Based on statistics developed from global research conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 5.6 million children who are at the age of five die out of hunger annually with a death frequency of approximately 15,000 on the daily basis. The statistics range across continents with Africa leading with a prevalence of 76.5 per 1000 live births while in Europe, the prevalence stands at 9.6 per 1000 live births (Mercy Corps, 2020). Further statistics show that more than 3.1 million children death cases are reported annually as the result of undernutrition (Micha, 2020). Families with children are more likely to lack food security than families without children (Gundersen, 2015). There is a major impact of undernutrition on children, particularly on the immune system. In some cases, child death cases are found to have undernutrition as an underlying factor (Haque et al, 2017). Most research examining overall food insecurity and its impact on health outcomes has focused on children (Gundersen, 2015). For example, children in food insecure family are 2-3 times more likely to develop anemia compared with children in food safe family (Eicher-Miller, 2019). Compared with children who live in the food safety family, the food intake of the meat food group for children who cannot meet food safety is restricted. Therefore, food-insecure children and adolescents may not get the iron needed for normal growth and development (Matheson, 2002). According to statistics provided by the United Nations, there were an increase in the average number of families that were faced by food shortage.

For instance, a child may be affected severely by a disease such as pneumonia or malaria but upon evaluation, the medical professionals realize the child did not have enough nutritious food to counter the infection. Based on the statistics provided, it is evident that child hunger is a major problem that needs immediate interventions to reduce the prevalence of issue (Wetherill et al, 2021). There are certain factors that are attributed to the rise of child hunger. Among the factors include conflict, poverty, seasonal changes, natural disaster, and gender inequality. With such contributing factors, there is a need to implement strategies that help in eliminating the factors. There are two possible alternatives that can be used: supplemental nutrition program assistance and reforming the markets (Drucker et al, 2019).

1.2.1 Formal Problem Statement

There has been an increased prevalence of child hunger and food insecurity in the world during the Covid-19 pandemic. This is contributed by the decrease in income as more jobs were lost following the decline in production. Also, with the reduced supply in the global economy, the price level of food commodities making it impossible for majority of households to afford. As a result, the global economic growth process was affected which led to stagnation as well as decline in development projects. Therefore, there is a need to determine ways to counter the increasing adverse impact of food insecurity and child hunger under Covid-19 through instituting effective mitigation strategies.

1.3 Purpose of Study

The purpose of the study is to determine the role of supplemental nutrition assistance programs and reforming markets in ending child hunger and attaining food security during Covid-19. In attaining the goal of the paper, the paper examines various elements of the two strategies: supplemental nutrition program assistance and reforming the markets and how they can contribute to the elimination of the child-hunger problem in society. In evaluating the applicability of the strategies, the paper will assess various factors that cause food insecurity and the level of viability of each of the strategies in eliminating or minimizing the impact of each of the factors. The higher the level of correlation between the strategy and the contributory factor, the higher the level of viability in applying the strategy to attain food security and ending child hunger (Shloim et al, 2018).

1.4 Research question

There has been a problem in the need to eliminate food insecurity and child hunger contributed by the pandemic. Child hunger and food insecurity has been a global problem affecting many countries even before the emergence of Covid-19 pandemic. However, the pandemic increased the severity of the problem. This has risen the need to develop policies that address the child hunger and food insecurity problem. In conducting a study to investigate the problem, the following research questions are used.

What is the impact of supplemental nutrition programs in ending child hunger and attaining food security during Covid-19?

What is the effect of market reforms in ending child hunger and attaining food security?

1.5 Theoretical Framework

2 Literature Review

This section provides a detailed analysis on child hunger and food insecurity and a detailed description of supplemental nutrition program and market reforms. In attaining the goal, various peer-review articles and statistic reports are analyzed to determine research gap filled by the research.

2.1. Introduction

This section focuses at reviewing the scholarly work of other researchers. The aim of the section is determining the research gap based on what other scholars have found in relation to child hunger and food insecurity under Covid-19. In attaining the goal, the paper outlines research reports from various sources.

2.2. Food insecurity and child hunger in Covid-19

Food insecurity refers to the lack of sufficient food for individual or lack of access to food. This contributes to child hunger which is described as lack of access to quality food needed for the growth and development of children.

2.2.1. The already food insecurity problem before the pandemic

In 2019, there are around 60 million more people who are undernourished than there were in 2014. Undernutrition is responsible for approximately half of all fatalities in children under the age of five, and stunting and wasting have an impact on children all around the world. As reported by the World Health Organization, around 144 million children under the age of five were stunted worldwide in 2019. By the end of 2020, an additional 6.7 million children would have been wasted as a result of the epidemic, contributing to an increase in child hunger. According to the World Bank, 19 percent of the population in Africa is undernourished, making it the continent with the greatest proportion of undernourished individuals in the world. Since 2000, the number of stunted children has increased only in Africa, where it has remained stable. More than 70% of the world’s chronically hungry individuals are women and girls, according to the World Food Programme. As a result of food restriction, people may cut back on their meal consumption and resort to maladaptive coping mechanisms such as early and forced marriages, as well as transactional sexual encounters with children (Reuter, 2021).

Violence and insecurity have contributed to the famine of 77 million people in 22 countries this year, making war the leading cause of severe hunger in this region. Seventy percent of the world’s top 20 countries are threatened by food insecurity in unstable or conflict-affected regions. The COVID-19 meeting in Nairobi this year predicted a rise in extreme food insecurity in West and Central Africa as a result of violence. COVID-19, on the other hand, has the potential to exacerbate food insecurity in the region by a factor of more than one-third, according to the World Food Programme. As a result of the severe weather events that occurred in 2019, an estimated 34 million people in 25 countries, predominantly in Africa, were forced to live in food insecurity. In 2019, economic shocks forced 24 million individuals in eight countries to live in food insecurity as a result of their circumstances. Agricultural insecurity will only intensify if we don’t solve our flawed global food systems as soon as possible. The depletion and exhaustion of soil resources is a global issue. The epidemic has exacerbated the issue, with food insecurity becoming a major concern in a number of countries around the world as a result of the outbreak (Akseer et al, 2021).

2.2.2. Food price level in the global market

Food security in any economy is contributed significantly by the price levels of food commodities in the economy. This is because prices charged on the products determine the affordability of the commodity at the market. When the prices of food products are lower, the demand is high as it matches the purchasing power of the majority. This is characterized by food security as food is easily and evenly distributed to the people. A shift in price levels to a higher level, there is a decline in the number of people who can afford the food products at the higher prices. This is characterized by an increase in food insecurity as majority of the customers no longer afford the products. This is evident through statistics report provided by the United Nations on prevalence of food insecurity. There was a significant change in price levels of food commodities with the emergence of the pandemic in 2020 (Mishra & Rampal, 2020). For most countries which had a stable Agricultural Commodity Price Index during the pre-pandemic, they experienced a significant shift into instable price index following the emergence of the pandemic. The Agricultural Commodity Price Index settled in the second from last quarter of 2021 yet stays 25 percent higher than a year prior. In September, maize and wheat costs were 36 percent and 6 percent over their January 2020 levels, while rice is 11 percent underneath pre-pandemic levels. Costs reflect solid interest, alongside climate vulnerabilities, macroeconomic conditions, and COVID-19-related stockpile interruptions, despite the fact that the worldwide creation standpoint for significant grains stays great (Niles et al, 2020).

2.2.3. Food insecurity

There are distinct causes of food insecurity in the wake of covid-19 which starts with the impact on affordability for food products, a decline in income among other factors contributed to the decline the research was conducted in different countries across the world to determine the prevalence of the problem. There are a variety of countries experiencing food shortage as a result of disruption in inventory system at the retail level due to the effects of COVID-19 social separating measures, cash debasements, and different elements. The rate of food insecurity reflects the prevalence of child hunger as children are the major part of any population (Polsky & Gilmour, 2020). This is contributed by poor financial planning on basic services such as provision of opportunity for the citizens to afford food. Taking an approximate figure at the center of the projected reach which is approximately 768 million, around 118 million additional individuals were confronting persistent appetite in 2020 than in 2019. Utilizing an alternate pointer that tracks all year admittance to satisfactory food, almost 2.37 billion individuals or 30 percent of the worldwide population needed admittance to sufficient food in 2020. This represents an increase of 320 million in only one year (Huizar et al, 2021).

2.2.4. Child hunger

World Bank has been in the forefront in determining the prevalence of social problems in the community. It has been focused at ensuring the global society does not experience factors that disrupt peaceful coexistence among which include food insecurity (Dun et al, 2020). In efforts to determine the prevalence of food insecurity under Covid-19, the World Bank piloted several countries across the World to determine the impact of child hunger. The first study was conducted to determine the impact of Covid-19 on food insecurity after which the prevalence of child hunger was determine (Elsahoryi et al, 2020). As the world’s most developed nations immunize their citizens and begin to emerge from lockdowns, billions of kids all throughout the world are encountering the adverse effect of COVID-19: such as of experiencing extreme appetite. Indeed, even before the pandemic, one youngster in three youngers than five was malnourished. The Covid-19 pandemic has led to difficulties and tensions onto currently stressed wellbeing frameworks, delicate economies, food frameworks and occupations. The pandemic has expanded the danger of long for a large number of kids around the world, here and there you might not have anticipated (Polsky & Gilmour, 2020). With the rise and the spread of the pandemic, a huge number of occupations that have been lost because of limitations like isolations, travel limitations, absence of the travel industry, and other lockdown estimates that prevent organizations from exchanging. Be that as it may, it’s more terrible in emerging nations, with misfortunes of pay because of COVID-19 expected to reach more than $220 billion in less fortunate nations (Hamadani et al, 2020). This implying that a huge number of guardians will not have the option to give food to their kids, for reasons completely outside their ability to control. With an expected 55% of the worldwide populace having no admittance to social assurance like state benefits, these misfortunes will be more intense for the least fortunate and most weak networks (Leddy et al, 2020).

2.2.5. Covid-19 and child hunger

Public health rules to limit the spread of the COVID-19 virus have relied extensively on stay-at-home orders this year, but these restrictions inflict a significant strain on families and individuals as a result of their strictness. According to a new study, lockdowns have a bad influence on people’s mental health, diet, and relationships with their family members. Experts from the Durham Global Health Institute and some of our partners convened on Wednesday, February 3, to discuss how people in Durham, North Carolina, and other US communities are dealing with the pandemic’s difficulties (Sohel et al, 2021).

Amber Rieder, a global mental health postdoctoral associate at the Duke Global Health Institute and the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences who has been conducting research on the topic under the supervision of Eve Puffer, shared preliminary findings on the mental health of families in the United States South. In the online poll, which was provided to parents in 18 southern United States, more than 1,800 children, ranging in age from 3 to 16, took part. During the first six months of the pandemic, they participated in online surveys to provide feedback. Their preliminary investigation, according to Rieder, shows that they have made three key discoveries (Dempsey & Pautz, 2021). According to preliminary research, Parents suffer from major mental health concerns. Parents report mild depression symptoms in more than half of cases, with a third reporting more severe symptoms that are more consistent with clinical severity. The researchers were taken aback when they discovered that anxiety symptoms were present in 33 percent of the families tested. The second finding shows that parents are having difficulty guiding their children’s social, emotional, and behavioral development in the right direction. Since the outbreak of the pandemic began, the majority of parents have claimed that their children’s mental health has deteriorated. The final conclusion demonstrates that the relationships between parents and their partners as well as their children are deteriorating.

As a result of the closure of schools or the operation of “remote learning” centers, children have been deprived of access to nutritious breakfasts and lunches at school. The practice of sending children to school for lunch, where they could meet the majority of their daily calorie and nutritional requirements, was widespread among low-income households. Schools’ inventive efforts to provide meal pick-up sites, meal drop-off locations on school buses, and USDA waivers for free lunches for children resulted in 1.15 billion school meals being missed during a nine-week period in the spring of 2020, according to research (Crush et al, n.d.).

2.2.6. Impact of the pandemic

Coronavirus has additionally affected inventory chains, which has a thump on impact on food costs, making dinners excessively expensive for a large number of individuals. The expense of an essential food container expanded by over 10 percent in 20 nations in the months after the beginning of the pandemic in 2020. Inventory network disturbance has likewise created setbacks for the cultivating season, and limitations on development for work have come about in less than ideal harvests across numerous nations and areas. Even before the Covid-19 pandemic stroke in different parts of the world, there had been cases of food insecurity with few regions experiencing shortage. Statistics show there has been approximately 820 million people who were experiencing the problem (Lal, 2020). From the population assessed, an approximate of 144 million consisted of children below the age of five years. That is more than one of every five youngsters around the world. The quantity of youngsters who are delegated squandering is presently 47 million. These numbers could develop quickly (Nagata et al, 2021). The Covid-19 pandemic had the potential to elevate the problem by pushing additional 47 million people into great need of food supply. Each rate point drop in worldwide gross domestic product relied upon to result in an extra 0.7 million kids who were affected by the pandemic (Spaull & Van, 2020). The supply chains of food products across the world were impacted by the measures implemented to control the spread of the pandemic across the world. This include the travel restrictions across the world where some countries enacted travel bans particularly through flights. This affected the supply of food commodities as some organization reduced their export services thus curtailing on some food supply (Tester et al, 2020). Ranchers have been covering transient produce or unloading milk because of inventory network interruption and falling shopper interest. Subsequently, there are many individuals living in the metropolitan who are living while battling to get to new foods grown from the ground, dairy, meat and fish (Dunn et al, 2020). The same is experienced with COVID-19 pandemic where it raises the caution on the pressing need to change the world’s food frameworks. Worldwide, environmental change is driven by food frameworks and the planet’s unfurling natural emergency. There is a critical need to reexamine quickly how we produce, process, market, devour our food and discard squander (Fry-Bowers, 2020).

2.2.7. The global pandemic and economic conditions causing food insecurity

According to an Oxfam report, in view of the outbreak and spread of the pandemic, there is an urgent need to address the issue of food insecurity. According to a new Oxfam research published recently, up to 11 people die every minute as a result of hunger and malnutrition. According to the current global COVID-19 fatality rate, around seven individuals per minute are killed by the virus. Food insecurity has reached crisis-level proportions in more than 155 million people around the world, an increase of 20 million people from the previous year, according to the World Food Programme. Due to the fact that their country is at war or in conflict, two out of every three of these people are experiencing food insufficiency. Malnutrition has increased in the poor countries as a result of economic shocks, which have been exacerbated by the coronavirus outbreak and the escalation of natural disasters such as flooding. The outcome of widespread unemployment and significant disruptions in agricultural supply has resulted in a 40 percent increase in global food prices, the largest increase in more than a decade (Inza-Bartolomé & San-Epifanio, 2021). Despite the pandemic, global military spending increased by $51 billion, which is enough to fund six and a half times the United Nations’ estimate of what is needed to protect people from starving to death. 48 million people will be displaced from their homes by the end of 2020, making it the greatest recorded number of internal displacements in history. Afghanistan, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Syria, and Yemen are among the world’s most impoverished countries when it comes to hunger, and the situation has gotten worse since last year, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (Smith & Wesselbaum, 2020). According to a new research from the International Panel on Climate Change, Ethiopia’s Tigray area is witnessing its worst famine since 2011, when more than a quarter of a million Somalis died (IPC). More than half of Yemen’s population is anticipated to be affected by food insecurity this year, according to forecasts. Food insecurity has increased in India, South Africa, and Brazil, and so has the number of COVID-19 infections, which have also increased in these three nations. More than half of the working population in Brazil was laid off as a result of the government’s efforts to contain the spread of the virus. The number of people living in extreme poverty increased from 4.5 percent to 12.8 percent, and the number of people who were hungry increased by more than 20 percent. Because the federal government only provided assistance to 38 million people, many families were left without a reliable source of income. Because of an upsurge in COVID-19 infections in India, migrant laborers and farmers were particularly heavily struck, since they were compelled to abandon their fields and let their crops go to waste. More than 70% of respondents polled in 12 states said they reduced their dietary intake because they couldn’t afford to purchase food (Idris, 2021). Additionally, the closure of schools has resulted in an estimated 120 million children being deprived of their primary meal source. The blockades, conflict, and fuel shortages that have plagued Yemen have caused staple food prices to more than treble since 2016. It was as a result of this that humanitarian agencies were unable to respond effectively, and food assistance for 5 million people was curtailed significantly ((Sohel et al, 2021). By July 2021, it is anticipated that the number of individuals living in famine-like conditions will have nearly tripled, reaching 47,000 people. Burkina Faso, for example, had an increase in hunger from 687,000 to 2.1 million people between 2019 and 2020, making it the most conflict-torn country in the Sahel area. Rising instability in the central Sahel and Lake Chad Basin prompted five million people to evacuate their homes, resulting in the highest level of food inflation in the region’s history. The climate catastrophe has had a negative impact on the livelihoods of 1.7 million people, who have witnessed floods increase by 180 percent in the previous two years, according to the United Nations (Botreau & Cohen, 2020).

2.3. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has been very effective in certain countries such as the United States of America. However, in implementation of the program, there has to be an effective plan that outlines ways in which the different stakeholders are supposed to contribute to the overall food program (Ku et al, 2019). In 2018, the United States implemented the program where it benefitted roughly 40 million American. The program covered 16.7 percent of all children in the American population as they were found to be from SNAP beneficiary households. In ensuring the effectiveness of the program is maximized, there are several factors considered in the implementation of the program (Bauer et al, 2021). One of the factors is the size of the household which is used in determining the quantity of food supplements supplied to the household. The second factor is income level where the Food and Nutrition Service responsible of implementing the program consider income as the main factor that determines the amount distributed on the household (Waxman et al, 2020). Also, the expenses incurred in the specific household is considered in determining the amount that a given household deserves in boosting the ability of the household to afford food. There are also factors that have contributed to successful implementation of the SNAP program in the United States. The financial stability of the country is definitely a factor given that the United States is already a developed country with huge supply of resources. This contributes to the success of the program in that he U.S government …

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