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please read the summative/formative assessment assignment handout with the directions on it. I have uploaded documents to get your information from previous assignments. I have also uploaded the summative lesson plan where the information will be placed. Please read the entire assignment and make sure you focus on the student (Acetin) identified weaknesses and you must include something that addresses each of the 5 components of reading.

I have also uploaded an example of the summative assessment.

CIR 412 Formative Assessment Form

Please remove all italicized directions throughout the document before submitting.

(Highlighted text refers to what to add for summative)

Student’s Name (First Only):

School:

Examiner:

Age:

Grade:

Date of Assessments (may take multiple days; list each assessment with corresponding date): List pre and post test dates

Directions: Record all significant summary information collected from assessments. List N/A if an assessment was not applicable/possible for the grade level.

Part I: Assessment of Interests and Motivations

(These will mostly come from the formative assessment results since you didn’t retest on this but you should include any additional background knowledge, verbal skills information you discovered working with student more.)

Summary of Student’s interests and/or motivations for reading (up to 2 brief paragraphs):

Additional Summative Information:

Summary of Student’s background knowledge (up to 1 brief paragraph):

Please note: Hopefully, you will be able to learn about your student from the mentor and other teachers at the school. You may also include information you have gleaned from your interactions with the student.

Additional Summative Information:

Informal evaluation of oral language and verbal skills (up to 1 brief paragraph):

Additional Summative Information:

Part II: Phonological Awareness/Phonics and/or Spelling Assessment

(Add your summative results to your formative results if you retested in this area)

You may find that you need to use the PAST to assess phonological awareness or The Phonics and Word Reading Survey if your student struggles in these areas. If so, include information on those results.

PAST/Phonics Word Reading information (up to 1 brief paragraph explaining the assessment tool used & results):

Tutoring Recommendations based on PAST/Phonics Word Reading (up to 2 brief paragraphs discussing what specific areas to focus on for tutoring based on PAST/Phonics. Ex: 1 paragraph on blending phonemes and 1 paragraph on long vowels)

Words Their Way Spelling Assessment information (up to 1 brief paragraph explaining the assessment tool used):

Fill in chart below: (include # possible on each Ex: 3/10)

Blends and Digraphs

Vowels

Complex Consonants

Inflected Endings and Syllable Juncture

Unaccented Final Syllables

Affixes

Reduced Vowels in Unaccented Syllables

Greek and Latin Elements

Assimilated Prefixes

Feature Points

Words Spelled Correctly

Totals

Tutoring Recommendations based on Spelling Assessment (up to 2 brief paragraphs discussing what specific areas to focus on for tutoring based on spelling assessment. For instance, 1 paragraph on Greek/Latin Roots and 1 paragraph on Inflected Endings)

Part III: Reading Vocabulary, Fluency, and Comprehension

(List the version for each assessment. Ex: 3.1)

(Add your summative results to your formative results if you retested in these areas)

Fluency & Vocabulary:

Word Reading Fluency:

Passage Reading Fluency:

Comprehension:

Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension:

Oral Language and Vocabulary Observations (up to 1 brief paragraph)

Part IV: Instructional Implications (IF-THEN Analyses)

(Add to for summative)

Student Strengths:

List and explain at least 2 strengths you noticed with your tutoring student. (at least 2 brief paragraphs. 1 paragraph per strength.)

Additional Summative Information:

Areas of Focus for ILP:

List and explain at least 3 INSTRUCTIONAL weaknesses you noticed with your tutoring student. These will be the focus of your tutoring sessions lessons. Do not focus on behavioral or motivational concerns/weaknesses Ex: easily distracted, doesn’t like to read, attention issues, etc.(at least 3 brief paragraphs. 1 paragraph per weakness)

Additional Summative Information:

Part V: Tutoring Sessions Overview

Once you have completed all sessions, you will revise/fill this chart out for the summative assessment report with what you actually did in your tutoring sessions.

Tutoring Session Number & Area of Focus Addressed

Opening Activity (1-3 Minutes)

Area of Focus Addressing Weakness 1, 2, or 3 (10-15 minutes)

Closing Activity (1-3 minutes)

Reading component(s) addressed

1 (Ex: Morphemes for Vocabulary)

2

3

*Post-Tutoring reassessment and Summative Report Writing to take place after sessions end

Please note the above is a plan. For the formative assessment report, you will fill this out with your initial ideas for a tutoring plan based on your assessments and the 5 components of reading. Once you have completed all sessions, you will revise/fill this chart out for the summative assessment report with what you actually did in your tutoring sessions.

Summative Assessment assignment

Here is where you will submit your summative assessment report. Some of it should already be completed on your Formative Assessment Report. You will add to the results and complete the plan based on what you actually did in the Tutoring sessions

A few pointers as you complete the report:

· For the Easy CBM results, give CWPM (correct words per minute) and GE (grade equivalent) in the descriptive analysis. Make sure to also list which versions you gave. Ex: 3.1

· Use professional, formal writing in your analysis.

· When completing the ILP chart, list the research-based strategy you are using.

· Remember you will focus on your student’s identified weaknesses in your ILP, but you must include something that addresses each of the 5 components of reading in your plan. This could be a quick opening activity or review or be part of the bigger lesson. You will list each component addressed in the session on the last column of the chart for the summative. Make sure to include an objective and assessment for it if you are listing it as addressed in the lesson.

· For any section on the form that is not applicable to your student, you can simply write N/A in that section. For example, it may not have been appropriate for you to complete the MCRC if working with a younger student. Or, the following are only included on the Upper Elementary Spelling Inventory: Reduced Vowels in Unaccented Syllables, Greek and Latin Elements, Assimilated Prefixes, and Feature Points, and you would just write N/A in those columns.

· Leave formative information in the summative report. Add to the results and analyses with summative when applicable.

· List the pre and post-test dates on the summative.

· Remove all of the directions from the report before saving to submit.

The attached document has a few examples from former students. Please note these samples are not perfect but intended to give you an idea of what is expected. You must still submit your own original work. Also, some of the assessments given may differ since this was a previous semester with a different textbook.

Rubric

Summative Assessment

Summative Assessment

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOrganization

The Summative reporty is organized according to directions given and the format on the electronic file labeled attached to the assignment description.

2 pts

Exemplary

Organization meets the criteria at an exemplary level.

1 pts

Satisfactory

Organization meets the criteria at a satisfactory level; only one or two minor organizational problems present.

0 pts

Does Not Meet Expectations

The case study is not organized or is not neat; content included does not follow the outline and/or directions given in class.

2 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCompleteness

The case study is complete and includes results for each of the assessments administered; the overall summary, and recommendations. Note: depending on the individual needs of each elementary school student tutored, additional assessment or alternate assessments may be recommended.

7 pts

Exemplary

All assessments have been administered and write-ups and feedback on scored assessments and ILP are thorough.

5 pts

Satisfactory

All assessments have been administered and write-ups are satisfactory, but may not be thorough.

3 pts

Does Not Meet Expectations

An assessment or more than one assessment or component from ILPthat should have been administered is missing from the case study, or summaries, or overall recommendations are incomplete, or not thorough.

7 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeInterpretation & Analyses

Interpretations and Analyses are accurate and reflect critical thinking.

8 pts

Exemplary

All assessments are interpreted correctly and analyses reflect critical thinking and results are reflected in ILP.

6 pts

Satisfactory

Most of the results of the assessments are interpreted correctly and analyzed thoughtfully; however, a few minor mistakes are present.

4 pts

Does Not Meet Expectations

One or more of the assessments is interpreted incorrectly, or interpretations do not reflect critical thinking.

8 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeFeedback

Reflects attention to Instructor’s and/or peer recommendations and suggestions

4 pts

Exemplary

Student responded to feedback at an exemplary level.

3 pts

Satisfactory

Student responded to feedback at a satisfactory level.

2 pts

Does Not Meet Expectations

Student did not follow up on the recommendations

4 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting

College-Level writing, spelling, grammar, usage, and word choice

4 pts

Exemplary

Exemplary college level writing, spelling, grammar, usage and word choice

3 pts

Satisfactory

Work contains a few errors or unclear sentences

2 pts

Does Not Meet Expectations

Work contains many errors and/or unclear sentences

4 pts

Total Points: 25

CIR 412 Summative Assessment Form

Student’s Name: Beau

School: XXXX Elementary

Examiner:

Age:9

Grade: 4th

Date of Pre-Assessment: September 17, 2019, September 24, 2019

Date of Post-Assessment: November 5, 2019

Part I: Assessment of Interests and Motivations

To understand Beau’s reading interests and motivations for reading, I had him fill out a Reading Interest Survey and a Motivations for Reading Questionnaire. From these two documents, I found out that Beau does not enjoy reading. He rarely reads on his own. His answers were very short and negative towards reading. For example, he said he does not have a favorite series or type of book.

Beau only showed interest in two areas: Fortnite and gaming books. He enjoys reading books that are based on video games. He also like how-to books for video games. From these documents, I also gathered that Beau likes to do well in school. So, even though he does not enjoy reading, he wants to be a good reader to succeed.

In class, Beau likes to be called on to read aloud. He is a fluent reader for his grade-level, but he does struggle with words he does not recognize. Beau does not choose to read on his own, and he will only read if it is a requirement. On assignments that consists of independent reading, Beau shows that he does not comprehend most of the text. This shows in the questioning after he reads the passage. From assessment, I have gathered that Beau struggles more with vocabulary and unknown words than fluency and comprehension. Intervention in specific vocabulary for his grade-level will attribute to fluency and comprehension.

Beau’s verbal communication skills are adequate for his grade level. He pronounces words correctly and uses vocabulary that suits his level. Beau tends to be shy at first, so it is hard to get him to talk. Once we began talking about different games he likes to play, he started to open up. Reading aloud was a bit difficult for Beau. He was very quiet while reading, and he was nervous about messing up.

Part II: Phonological Awareness/Phonics and/or Spelling Assessment

Formative Assessment Results:


The Elementary Spelling Inventory (ESI) was used to assess Beau’s phonics and spelling skills. This assessment consists of twenty-five words that increase in difficultly to resemble developmental stages. This assessment was given in a way that resembles a spelling test. The assessor called out each word and used it in a sentence. After the assessment was given, the test was scored using the matching feature guide.

Consonants

Short Vowels

Digraphs

Blends

Common Long Vowels

Other Vowels

Inflected Endings

Syllable Junctures

Unaccented Final Syllables

Advanced Suffixes

Bases or Roots

Correct Spelling

Totals

7/7

4/5

6/6

7/7

4/5

5/7

3/5

2/5

3/5

2/5

2/5

11/25

After gathering background knowledge and looking into fourth grade standards, I feel that Beau will benefit best with tutoring sessions focused on affixes and bases or roots. He scored lowest in three sections; however, these two are better to focus on for his grade level.

Tutoring Beau on affixes will benefit him. In fourth grade, vocabulary becomes increasingly difficult. Providing Beau with the understanding of basic prefixes and suffixes will help him determine meanings of words he may not recognize. This will help his reading fluency and comprehension.

It is also beneficial to tutor Beau on bases and roots. Along with affixes, this is a key component to understanding more advanced vocabulary. With the knowledge of affixes and roots, Beau will be able to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.

Summative Assessment Results:

The Elementary Spelling Inventory (ESI) was used to assess Beau’s phonics and spelling skills. This assessment consists of twenty-five words that increase in difficultly to resemble developmental stages. This assessment was given in a way that resembles a spelling test. The assessor called out each word and used it in a sentence. After the assessment was given, the test was scored using the matching feature guide.

Consonants

Short Vowels

Digraphs

Blends

Common Long Vowels

Other Vowels

Inflected Endings

Syllable Junctures

Unaccented Final Syllables

Advanced Suffixes

Bases or Roots

Correct Spelling

Totals

7/7

5/5

6/6

7/7

5/5

6/7

3/5

3/5

3/5

4/5

4/5

17/25

After intervention, Beau was reassessed using the same measures during Pre-assessment. Overall, Beau improved in various categories. The focus during intervention was Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes, and Beau improved in these categories on the Spelling Assessment.

Since intervention yielded improvement for Beau, it is recommended that Beau continues to receive intervention in this area.

Part III: Reading Vocabulary, Fluency, and Comprehension

Formative Assessment Results:


For assessment in fluency and comprehension, the assessor used easyCBM, an online system that provides reading and math Benchmark and Progress Monitoring assessments and reports for districts and schools. These probes were developed by Behavioral Research and Teaching (BRT) at the University of Oregon partnered with Riverside, the assessment division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. The 4.1 reading comprehension assessment consisted of a passage and multiple-choice questions. The 4.1 fluency passage was an oral assessment. The student reads from a passage for one minute while the assessor makes notes of mistakes and where the student stops.

Word Reading Fluency: N/A

Passage Reading Fluency: CWPM-136

Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension: 45%

Beau has good communication skills. After getting over initial shyness, he speaks fluently and pronounces words accurately. His communication skills are that of a fourth-grader, and his vocabulary seems to be on the same level.

Summative Assessment Results:

For assessment in fluency and comprehension, the assessor used easyCBM, an online system that provides reading and math Benchmark and Progress Monitoring assessments and reports for districts and schools. These probes were developed by Behavioral Research and Teaching (BRT) at the University of Oregon partnered with Riverside, the assessment division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. The 4.2 reading comprehension assessment consisted of a passage and multiple-choice questions. The 4.2 fluency passage was an oral assessment. The student reads from a passage for one minute while the assessor makes notes of mistakes and where the student stops.

Word Reading Fluency: N/A

Passage Reading Fluency: CWPM-147

Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension: 65%

Part IV: Instructional Implications (IF-THEN Analyses)

Formative Assessment Results:

One strength I noticed about Beau’s reading is that he sounds out words he does not recognize. Too often, students will skip a word entirely or wait until someone tells them the word. Beau does his best to sound out unfamiliar words, and he does not mind the struggle. He wants to know that he can do it on his own.

Overall, Beau is a fluent reader. He follows the words and reads them accurately. The only time he is not fluent is if he is struggling with a word. He takes the time to look at the word and tries to sound it out.

Although he does not enjoy reading, Beau tries really hard to be a good reader. If he stumbles on a word, he does not give up. He keeps reading.

After assessing my student, I found that his two weaknesses were both components of vocabulary: roots and affixes.

Beau struggles with pulling apart roots and affixes. He does not seem to have much background knowledge on affixes. Tutoring Beau on affixes will be beneficial to his reading abilities because it will help broaden his vocabulary. If Beau is able to understand certain prefixes and suffixes, then he has a better chance of understanding the word.

Tutoring Beau on roots is also beneficial. This, along with tutoring affixes, will help Beau break down unfamiliar vocabulary. This will help when vocabulary becomes increasingly difficult. Having these skills will help Beau understand more complex vocabulary.

Summative Assessment Results:

After Beau’s interventions, I noticed how much his reading and spelling improved. When he had to read aloud, he was much more confident. Beau spoke up instead of whispering, and he read with more prosody. The intervention Beau received focused on roots, prefixes, and suffixes; however, this too affected his overall ability to read.

Beau’s fluency during reading also improved after intervention. After understanding that words can have roots and affixes, he understood that he could break apart complex words he came across while reading. This became a strength of his because Beau is now able to read more complex words by breaking them apart.

After receiving intervention, Beau started to break apart more complex vocabulary. From this strength, he is reading more fluently. This also helps his comprehension abilities, because Beau understands word meanings after breaking them apart by roots and affixes. Overall, intervention on roots and affixes has benefited Beau’s vocabulary, reading fluency, and comprehension.

While intervention has benefited Beau in many areas, there are two weakness I noticed relating to his reading abilities. He is beginning to comprehend what he is reading better, but he is still not reaching grade-level comprehension. Continued tutoring focused on reading strategies would be beneficial for Beau.

Another weakness I have noticed is Beau’s dislike of reading. It is important for all students to find some form of love in reading, but Beau does not want to read if he does not have to. This could be resolved by encouraging him to read texts related to his interests. Before assessing Beau, I found that he enjoyed gaming. Providing him with text that focuses on his interest would allow him to practice his reading skills, and, in turn, make him a great reader.

Part V: Tutoring Sessions Overview

Tutoring Session Number

Opening Activity (1-3 Minutes)

Addressing Weakness 1 activity (5-7 minutes)

Addressing Weakness 2 activity (5-7 minutes

Closing Activity and Reminders of what to work on for next time (1-3 minutes)

List which of 5 Reading Components* addressed in lesson

1

Morpheme Match-Up

Prefix Practice Activity Sheet

Prefix Passage & Activity Sheet

List and analyze words with prefixes

Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary

2

Spin a Word

Add the Prefix-Activity Sheet

Prefix Passage & Activity Sheet

Identifying prefixes and adding them to words

Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary

3

Scoopin’ Suffixes Match-Up

Suffix Activity Sheet

Suffix Spinner Activity

Identifying words with suffixes

Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary

4

Suffix Board Game

Suffix Board Game/ Fly Swatter Game-Suffixes

Fly Swatter Game- Suffixes

Identifying the correct suffix for the word in the sentence

Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary

5

Matching Game-Prefixes and Suffixes

Matching Game- Prefixes and Suffixes/ Prefix and Suffix Bingo

Prefix and Suffix Bingo

Exit Slip

Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary

Post-Tutoring reassessment and Summative Report Writing to take place after sessions end

CIR 412 Formative/Summative Assessment Form

Student’s Name (First Only):

School:

Examiner:

Age:

Grade:

Date of Assessment (may take multiple days): September 19, 2019, September 23, 2019, September 25, 2019, September 27, 2019, September 30, 2019, October 2, 2019

November 19th, November 21st, and November 22nd.

Part I: Assessment of Interests and Motivations

Chance indicated that he likes to read books, such as Pete the Cat, Dog Man, and Bad Kitty. Chance is in fourth grade, but all the books he mentioned are first through third grade level books. He expressed that he likes fiction, but he also likes to read stories about real life situations and people. Chance likes to read because it’s fun, and it takes you places. Some of Chances other interests are mystery, adventure, fantasy, and funny books.

Chance’s motivations for reading vary. He does not necessarily read to comply with his teacher’s requirements or to get good grades. His answers on the MRQ indicate he avoids reading for schoolwork and is not highly motivated for social reading, but he does like to share what he reads with his friends and parents. The survey also shows that he is not a competitive reader and does not like hard challenging books, long involved books, complicated stories, or books with words that are too difficult. Chance likes to use his imagination to make pictures in his head when he reads. If he is interested in the topic, he is more likely to read the story. Chance indicated that being a good reader is a little different from him, but it is important to him to become a good reader. He does not feel that his reading grade is an indication of how well he is doing in school.

Chance’s background knowledge in phonics and spelling is limited. He has dyslexia and struggles with reading and spelling and has struggled since first grade. He has not retained enough information from instruction to master skills for his grade level.

Chance has excellent verbal skills and expresses himself very well. His vocabulary knowledge is good; he has a well-developed lexicon. Chance has a creative imagination and shares his thoughts on things he may envision or image. He has no problems expressing himself verbally. He communicates very well with other children and with adults.

Part II: Phonological Awareness/Phonics and/or Spelling Assessment



I administered The Phonics and Word Reading Survey to Chance. He performed well on the tasks listed for first and second grades. Although, he made errors when reading some vowel pattern words, such as silent e and r-controlled vowels. I started with the primary grades because Chance has dyslexia, and I wanted to find a good base for determining the skills he has mastered. He scored 17 out of 30 on vowel digraphs and diphthongs. He read a little over half of the words correctly with prefixes and suffixes scoring a 16 out of 30 in this section. We stopped the assessment at task 8 because it seemed to be getting a little difficult for Chance to continue reading some of the words.

After the tutoring sessions, I administered The Phonics and Word Reading Survey with Chance. The results reflect growth in all areas, except closed syllables words with short vowels/single consonants and vowel-r syllables. His most substantial growth is in the areas of reading words with long vowels and vowel team syllables. The results reflect an increase in reading words with long vowels from 4 out of the 18 words administered on the assessment to 11 out of 18, and he increased in reading vowel syllable words from 5 out of 18 to 13 out of 18. The areas of concern, at this point, are complex consonant patterns, mixed syllables with consonant-le, and vowel r-syllables. Chance would benefit from more explicit instruction in phonics to improve his reading skills.


Based on The Phonics and Word Reading Survey, Chance would benefit from additional instruction in vowel patterns. Instruction on phonic generalizations would be extremely beneficial. He misread many words with long vowel patterns, vowel digraphs, and diphthongs, so I believe starting with long vowel patterns, such as vowel teams and r-controlled vowels would be beneficial to him.

The next step would be to proceed to more advanced phonic generalizations. In my opinion, this would increase his word recognition and reading fluency. When students move up in grades, they sometimes forget what they have learned about phonics generalizations, or they do not apply their knowledge to their current reading skills. A refresher in phonic generalizations for vowel patterns would be a good starting point for Chance’s tutoring sessions.

Chance misread most of the words with inflected endings, prefixes and suffixes. He got sixteen out of thirty words correct on this part of the assessment. It is my opinion that he would benefit from instruction in this area. Increasing his knowledge of morphemes would help him improve his reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. All the components of reading work together to increase fluency, and the goal is to increase Chance’s reading fluency skills.

After the completion of Chance’s tutoring sessions, he was reassessed. Based on the reassessment, I would recommend more extensive and explicit instruction with spelling and phonic generalizations. He would benefit greatly with more differentiated instruction in these areas to accommodate his learning needs.

The assessment tool I used for spelling is from the Words Their Way textbook called the Elementary Spelling Inventory. Chance was eager to spell all the words on the list, so I administered all twenty-five words. He spelled five words correctly out of the twenty-five.

. Chance shows very little growth in spelling. The Words Their Way Elementary Spelling Inventory and Feature Guide was used to assess Chance before and after his tutoring sessions. According to the results, Chance has improved with reading inflected endings, consonant blends, and diagraphs. Although, the results reflect growth, the growth is minimal.

Fill in chart below:

Blends and Digraphs

Vowels

Complex Consonants

Inflected Endings and Syllable

Juncture

Unaccented Final Syllables

Affixes

Reduced Vowels in Unaccented Syllables

Greek and Latin Elements

Assimilated Prefixes

Feature Points

Words Spelled Correctly

Totals

6/13

After:

8/13

5/17

After:

5/17

4/7

After:

5/7

0/5

After:

1/5

0/5

After:

0/5

0/5

After:

0/5

0/5

After:

0/5

0/5

After:

0/5

0/5

After:

0/5

16/62

After:

20/62

5/25

After:

4/5

Based on the spelling assessment, Chance would benefit from instruction in long vowel patterns and vowel teams. It appears one of his reading weaknesses is rooted in his word recognition of vowel pattern words. For his tutoring session, we will concentrate on phonic generalizations, specifically vowel patterns.

Another area of concentration for his tutoring sessions will be instruction on blends and diagraphs. He scored a little over fifty percent accuracy when spelling blends and diagraphs on the inventory. My focus would be to improve his phonics skills because at his grade level, he should have mastered most phonic generalizations already.

I reassessed Chance after the completion of our tutoring sessions. This time, I did not administer the entire spelling inventory, only the first 10 words. According to the spelling inventory, Chance has had very little improvement with his spelling skills. Some of the contributors for this could be the difficulty he displayed staying on task during the tutoring sessions and absences from school between tutoring sessions. Also, his dyslexia could be a major factor.

Part III: Reading Vocabulary, Fluency, and Comprehension

:

: 39 CWPM 3-9 Not available higher than 3-9

: 54 CWPM 4-1 90 CWPM 4-2

:

:

Formative: Chances score on the MCRC was 18 correct out of 20 questions with a score of 90%.

Summative: Chances score on the MCRC was 12 correct out of 20 questions with a score of 60%.

Chance has good oral language skills. He communicates effectively with the use of a good working vocabulary. He verbally knows a vast amount of vocabulary words and their meanings, but he has difficulty reading the words in print. He has some weaknesses with phonological awareness and would benefit from phonics instruction. His pragmatics, syntax, and semantics appear to be well developed. His understanding of morphology and phonological awareness seem to be the weaker areas, but overall, his oral language is well developed.

If I work with Chance on his knowledge of phonic generalizations, such as vowel patterns, blends, diagraphs, diphthongs, infected endings, prefixes, and suffixes, then he will increase his mastery of these skills. If he improves his mastery of phonics skills, then he will increase his word recognition and enhance his reading fluency.

I recommend the same instruction as I previously recommended in the formative assessment. The only difference is that Chance needs extensive explicit instruction in spelling and phonic generalizations. If Chance improves his weaknesses in these two areas, he will increase his reading fluency and comprehension skills.

Motivation and interest are two areas of vital concern for Chance. It is crucial to find ways to motivate Chance because he displayed low interest and low motivation for doing the work needed to improve his literacy skills. Our tutoring sessions were difficult to complete and took longer than necessary because of his difficulty focusing and staying on task.

After the tutoring sessions, Chance’s reading fluency improved vastly, but his comprehension decreased based on the results of “only” one comprehension test administered. His knowledge of phonic generalizations shows growth and improvement, but his spelling inventory shows minimal growth.

When assessing Chance, one strength I noticed is that he uses self-correcting skills frequently. He may misread a word, but when he notices that it doesn’t sound right contextually in the sentence, he rereads it to figure out the correct word.

A second strength I noticed is that Chance has good comprehension skills. As he read the comprehension story, he seemed to grasp the context and understand the events that unfolded. He scored highly on his comprehension test, only missing two out of twenty questions.

A third strength I noticed is he has a good working vocabulary. Most students who struggle with reading have difficulty with vocabulary, but he seems to have a well-developed working vocabulary and lexicon.

When working with Chance I noticed he had some difficulty reading vowel patterns. He read short vowel sounds for long vowel sounds quite often during the assessment of The Phonics and Word Reading Survey. He struggled when reading diphthongs and vowel diagraphs, but overall, most of the weaknesses I observed were in phonics generalizations.

Another weakness I observed was his difficulty pronouncing many multi syllable words and words with prefixes and suffixes. Although, he did not have problems with compound words, he had difficulty with spelling words correctly that contained prefixes or suffixes during the spelling inventory. Also, Chance shows weaknesses in spelling for vowel teams and r-controlled vowels. Spelling is a major area that Chance needs improvement and growth.

Part V: Tutoring Sessions Overview

Tutoring Session Number

Opening Activity (1-3 Minutes)

Addressing Weakness 1 activity (5-7 minutes)

Addressing Weakness 2 activity (5-7 minutes)

Closing Activity and Reminders of what to work on for next time (1-3 minutes)

List which of 5 Reading Components* addressed in lesson

1 Phoneme Awareness

Prediction strategy based on the opening lines of the book.

Substituting initial, medial, and ending phonemes to address weakness in phonological awareness

Student practiced syllabication by drumming the number of syllables in words from the story.

Exit Slip

Reminder: Work on vowel patterns

Phonemic Awareness

2 Phonics

Jumping Syllables: Student rearranged syllables in words to make nonsense words

Word sort with vowel patterns

Student created a T chart with vowel patterns.

Graphic Organize to sequence events

Reminder:

Continue to work on phonic generalizations

Phonics, Fluency, and Comprehension

3 Fluency

Graphic organizer to summarize the story events from the previous lesson

Word hunt for vowel pattern words

Cube activity to work on prefixes and suffixes

Graphic organizer

Reminder: Continue to work on prefixes and suffixes

Fluency, Phonics, and Comprehension

4 Comprehension

Continue work on graphic organizer

Open ended word sort with spelling words

Cube activity with prefixes, suffixes, and syllabication

Continue to complete sections of the graphic organizer

Reminder: Continue to work on spelling

Comprehension, Fluency, and Phonics

5 Vocabulary

Spelling Slap: Student slaps flashcards with high frequency words. If the word is misspelled, the student slaps the card and spells the word correctly.

Four Square Vocabulary Graphic Organizer

Open ended word sort with spelling words

Complete the final sections of the graphic organizer/story map

Vocabulary, Phonics, and Comprehension

Post-Tutoring reassessment and Summative Report Writing to take place after sessions end

Please note the above is a plan. For the formative assessment report, you will fill this out with your initial ideas for a tutoring plan based on your assessment and the 5 components of reading. Once you have completed all sessions, you will fill this chart out for the summative assessment report with what you actually did in your tutoring sessions.




Tutor’s Name: Kaniesha Montgomery

Lesson Plan # ___3____

Acetin, second grade & reading level of Student:

Reading Component(s) addressed: English Vocabulary


Objective:

Students should participate in participatory activities in the class with different partners on diverse subjects and topics about grade 2. L.2.6

Students should produce complete words and sentences when mandated by the teacher to test their writing and reading vocabulary. L.2.5.a

Students should also use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of vocabulary or words. L.2.5.b


Assessment Procedures:

Direct observations when the student is writing and correcting where possible.

The teacher can use rubrics and checklists to assess the progress and vocabulary of the student.

The teacher should use homework assignments, in-class assignments, and tutoring lessons to assess their vocabulary level.


Review of Previous Lesson:

Drawing whatever was learned in the previous lesson and allowing the student to review or name

Allowing a few students to perform and recreate what they learned in the previous class.

Asking questions about what the students learned in their previous class.


Introduction/Affective Hook:

Asking an intriguing question will motivate the students to answer or anticipate the answer

Telling a story.

Using a quotation, or a proverb.

Playing a video or introducing a vocabulary game that the students can learn vocabulary and different terms.


Procedures:

Playing a video, introducing a video game or telling a story to the class.

Allowing the students to grasp and relate the information to what they previously learned in an earlier class.

Tasking students to read out aloud to others

Using semantic maps where students are allowed to discuss with their peers and draw on their existing knowledge.

Using word associations and allowing students to give examples of how words associate with one another.

Teachers should use word consciousness where they allow students to be aware of any new words during informal and formal conversations.

The teacher should allow the student to have a student-generated context where the students tell each other a story and listen to the vocabulary they use in each statement.


Materials/Technology:

Semantic maps

Video player and projector

White board and mark pen

The Cloud Book by Tomie DePaola

The Storm Book by Charlotte Zolotow

Game board


Closure:

The teacher should conclude the lesson by reminding the students what they have learned through questions or an interactive session. They should also assess the understanding and skills students have acquired throughout the class.

Tutor’s Name: Kaniesha Montgomery

Lesson Plan # __2_____

Acetin, 2nd grade & reading level of Student: Instructional Reading

Reading Component(s) addressed: Fluency and comprehension


Objective:

Acetin will participate in shared research and projects with others students and build on other people’s conversations by linking their comments to that of others. SL.2.1b

The students will also participate in collaborative conversations with multiple partners on topics and stories for grade 2. SL.2.1

The students will also show an understanding or clarify the meaning of unknown or multiple words or phrases. RF.2.4

Students like Acetin have to draw connections, make predictions, and ask questions to see their level of understanding. RF.2.4c

The student will read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression
on successive readings. RF.2.4b


Assessment Procedures:

Motivate the students need to read ahead through attribution retraining helping Acetin realize his

efforts and help them achieve the desired outcomes.

Assessing the reading prosody of each student by using qualitative numbers and ratings.

Assessing the rate and accuracy of the students by allowing the students to read loudly to the rest of the students.

Teacher should assess the student’s fluency by listening to them when they read out a loud because the reading will sound like normal reading.

Screening assessments is another way of assessing Acetins’ fluency and comprehension through curriculum-based measurements of oral reading fluency.


Review of Previous Lesson:

Using a reminding language or words that students can use to easily remember.

Asking questions about the previous lesson.

Initiating a conversation and encouraging the students to participate by finishing the sentences or giving specific questions.

Instructing the students through gesturing and drawing pictures to jog their memories.


Introduction/Affective Hook:

Using a quotation that is appropriate for grade 2 students.

Pose an intriguing question that students will relate to the topic of the lesson.

Using a video game of word play and involve the students to answer will motivate them to pay attention to the class activities and be interested in the class.

Tell a story to the class that relates to the topic and lesson of the day.


Procedures:

Start the class by introducing the topic using a story, quotation, question, video, or playing a video for the students.

Allow the students to read a passage to each other loudly and rate their accuracy and fluency for reading the passage.

Asking the students question to determine their level of understanding about the passage or game they were playing.

Ask questions at the end of the lesson to remind students about what they have learned.


Materials/Technology:

Ransom, C. F. (2002). Little Red Riding Hood. Carson-Dellosa Publishing.

Video Player and Projector

White Board and Chalk


Closure:

The teacher should conclude the lesson with a question reminding the students what they have learned and also to assess their comprehension and fluency.


CIR 412 TUTORING SESSION LESSON PLAN

Tutor’s Name: Kaniesha Montgomery

Lesson Plan # __1_____

Acetin, 2nd grade & reading level of Student: Instructional reading

Reading Component(s) addressed: Phonics, Spelling, and Rhyming words


Objective:

The student should distinguish short and long vowels during regular readings and spelled one –syllable word. R.F.2.3a

The student should identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences. RF.2.3e

Students should read and recognize appropriate words for the grade level that are irregularly spelled. RF 2.3f

Student should be able to determine the meaning of a new word when a prefix is added to any known word. L.2.4b

Students should be able to use reflexive pronouns such as myself and ourselves effectively. L.2.1c


Assessment Procedures:

The Rule-based approach will be used for assessing spelling and phonics which is primarily an analytical process. Acetin will be taught some words and then asked to analyze the words by breaking them down to different components and making phonic generalizations.

Rubrics and checklists is another form of assessment that will be used to check the progress that Acetin is making in phonetics and spellings.


Review of Previous Lesson:

Reminding the student what was learnt in the previous class by asking questions to jog out up memories.

The student can also recite or perform what was learnt in the previous classes before proceeding with the current lesson.


Introduction/Affective Hook:

To introduce the lesson, the teacher will use a video clip that the students and Acetin are familiar with. It will help capture their attention and motivate them for the lesson.


Procedures:

The lesson begins with the students watching a video clip of what the lesson. For example, watching a clip of a song reciting the words and spelling them correctly.

The teacher tells the students what activities are going to be performed throughout.

Students draw out their pens and wait for the teacher to read out the story and write the spellings of words the teachers indicate.

Check if each student has written the words correctly, correct where needed and motivate them.


Materials/Technology:

The Cloud Book by Tomie DePaola

Two Bobbies by Kirby Larson

White Board and Pen

Video Player and Projector

Game Board


Closure:

The teacher uses multiple approaches to enforce correct behavior on the students and create a conducive learning environment for Acetin and other students.

CIR 412 Formative Assessment Form

Kaniesha Montgomery

CIR 412

October 10, 2021

CIR 412 Formative Assessment Form

Student’s Name (First Only): Acetin

School: South Hancock Elementary

Examiner: Kaniesha Montgomery

Age: 7 yrs. old

Grade: 2nd grade

Date of Assessments:

Reading Interest Survey on September 27, 2021; MRQ on September 28, 2021; Spelling Assessment on September 29, 2021; Passage Reading Fluency on September 30, 2021; Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension on October 4, 2021

Part I: Assessment of Interests and Motivations

Summary of Student’s interests and/or motivations for reading

Becoming a lifetime reader is predicated on developing a love of reading. Acetin is 7 years old boy who is a slow learner and does not enjoy reading for pleasure as well as personal development. As the boy’s teacher it was necessary to motivate the young student. The key to instilling a love of reading in youngsters is motivation. One of the most effective methods I have discovered for motivating Richard is to stock the classroom shelves with books that correspond to the student’s interests and reading levels. Acetin loves flipping through pages and looking at images, so I figured he should be surrounded by titles that represent their own lives as well as the lives of his peers.

Acetin’s enthusiasm for reading has grown in recent weeks as he and other pupils discovered novels with characters who look like them and families that match their own or their neighbors’. According to (Keller et al., 2017), students’ understanding improves because of these linkages. Acetin’s classmates have been a valuable resource in assisting him in discovering what novels he enjoys reading. By generating customized book suggestions for their friends, I was able to inspire students to be book matchmakers. When Acetin went to the school library, he could now select books that matched his friends’ interests and hobbies and read them in groups.

Summary of Student’s Background Knowledge

Currently, Acetin and his classmates are reading Treasure Hunters, by James Patterson. The main theme in the story of Treasure Hunters is if you work together and do not give up you can accomplish your goal. The characters in the book were able to follow their dad’s clues to complete part of the secret mission because they worked together. This teaches Acetin and the other students to work collaboratively as they are in class and society. They are soon to begin reading “How I Survived Middle School,” to prepare them for their future educational journey.

Informal Evaluation of Oral Language and Verbal Skills

Assessment tasks were then administered to evaluate Acetin’s speech capabilities, and he can communicate her thoughts thoroughly although he has difficulty maintaining concentration. To ensure that he was focused, we used a variety of board games, books, and videos to elicit a spontaneous speech and improvement of spelling. From the assessment I could observe that Richard was unwilling to connect with other people on an emotional level especially adults, his attention span was okay as he could answer to all he was being asked and while playing with the toys his executive functioning and motor skills were normal. (Wilcox et al., 2020)

II: Phonological Awareness/Phonics and/or Spelling Assessment

Tutoring Recommendations based on PAST/Phonics Word Reading

As Acetin’s tutor, children must engage in phonological awareness exercises, and we were able to use this test in assessing Acetin’s ability to omit or substitute phonemes/sounds to make a new word. I asked the students questions such as to “Name words that rhyme with the words. Start” he answered shirt, which was impressive, “What word would you have if you changed the ‘h’ in hook with ‘l’ he answered look. (Kjeldsen et al., 2019) Which shows that he passed his PAST assessment. I also found out that he was embarrassed whenever he got a question wrong or struggled to provide the answer which made me encourage him not to give up as mistakes are part of his learning process.

Words Their Way Spelling Assessment Information

Words Their Way Spelling Assessments developed by Donald R. Bear, et. al. was used to analyze misspelled words, and the exam is given in the same way as conventional spelling tests, with the exception that it is a list of twenty-five spelling words sorted by difficulty. Students should not study the words before the examination, as they would for conventional spelling exams. They should also be informed that the activity will not be evaluated. Moreover, students are instructed to number their papers to begin a spelling inventory. (Puliatte, & Ehri, 2018). Teachers may give kids a numbered paper if they are in kindergarten or early first grade. Each phrase is said loudly and once more. The words are delivered in a conversational tone, with no emphasis on phonemes or syllables. If required, instructors may utilize a phrase using the term to ensure that pupils understand it. Tutors may conduct a lower-level inventory if pupils struggle with the higher-level inventory. Students such as Acetin may be given the inventory in small groups or as a full group. The inventory’s findings may be utilized to obtain a broad overview of each student’s spelling progress.

Blends and

Digraphs

Other

Vowels

Long vowels

Short vowels

Initial and final consonants

Inflected Endings and syllable Juncture

Unaccented

Final Syllables

Advanced Affixes

Bases or Roots

Feature Points

Words spelled correctly

Totals

10/10

5/5

10/10

10/10

7/7

7/7

5/5

N/A

4/7

25/25

50/50

Tutoring Recommendations based on Spelling Assessment

In the case of Acetin, it is necessary to enhance both spelling and text-writing skills. The reason for this misconception is that better spelling skills free up working memory, allowing you to concentrate more on the difficult job of text production. Spelling should not be taught as a stand-alone skill. Unfortunately, as shown by the substantial number of online and offline spelling exercises available—the majority of which are based on the behaviorist concept—this is a popular method. (Ebner, et al., 2018) Understanding the sounds that various combinations of letters produce are another building block ability that early readers will focus on. Create sure your kid learns how to sound out individual letters, the distinction between consonants and vowels, and how to sound out consonant blends (sl, sm, sp), digraphs (two letters that make one sound, such as ch or sh), and diphthongs (two letters that make one sound, such as ch or sh) (two vowels that form one syllable, such as au)

Part III: Reading Vocabulary, Fluency, and Comprehension

Fluency & Vocabulary:

Word Reading Fluency: out of 200 words, Acetin read 100 words, but missed 24 words, so his overall CWPM was 76.

Passage Reading Fluency: Out of 160 words, Acetin read 110 words, he missed 7 words, so his overall CWPM was 103.

Comprehension:

Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension: Out of 10 questions, Acetin missed 2.

Oral Language and Vocabulary Observations

Oral Language and Vocabulary Observations suggest that before each reading session, Acetin should allow them the opportunity to make predictions, draw connections, and ask questions to evaluate their understanding. These three comprehension methods provide information to a teacher about a student’s knowledge of a subject. Encourage readers to create predictions about the book’s content based on the title and illustrations before reading it. Students validate their predictions and establish a link while reading. To improve understanding, use questions like “What does this passage remind you of?” or “What will happen after this?” I have learned to provide kids with everyday experiences in instructional guided reading, independent reading, and choice because of my training. Expose children to a variety of culturally appropriate genres and provide them with comprehension skills to help them develop a love of reading.

Part IV: Instructional Implications (IF-THEN Analyses)

Student Strengths:

Acetin’s strength is his flexibility to handle change whenever the lessons change, he adjusts comfortably and applies what is taught without too much struggle such as spelling and drawing classes. Secondly, Acetin is a persistent student in class because he is constantly doing his hardest and not giving up when something seems impossible such as the board spelling games. Although there are moments when he is stubborn when he thinks he cannot understand a lesson being taught like his colleagues.

Areas of Focus for ILP:

The following are some of the notable weaknesses associated with Acetin in the tutoring lessons. Attention problems and reading achievement among young students such as Acetin are

common among seven-year-old students which impacts his learning capabilities. Acetin needs to engage in exercise that boosts his attention span as noted when offered toys are when he is attentive.

Stubbornness. One clear weakness was Acetin was stubborn whenever the other students performed better, and he would withdraw himself. He was not open about reading and until we tapped into his interests and include student choice of books that is when he showed interest in reading more.

Impatience. Acetin showed he was impatient as at times he was eager to do tasks without waiting or offering his colleagues a chance. As his teacher, I learned that he needs to be mindful of others as he leaned in the book he liked reading, “Treasure Hunters.”

Part V: Tutoring Sessions Overview

Tutoring Session Number & Area of Focus Addressed

Opening Activity (1-3 Minutes)

Area of Focus Addressing Weakness 1, 2, or 3 (10-15 minutes)

Closing Activity (1-3 minutes)

Reading component(s) addressed

1- Spelling

Brain Break & reviewing

Storytelling with learned words

Freewriting

Spelling inventory

2-Draw pictures

Brain break

Draw items of learned words

Coloring of drawings

Identification and relation of words to pictures

3-independence in learning

Brain break

Read aloud in class from chosen excerpts

Freewriting of a story

Personal Examples

4-Unaccented Final Syllables

Brain break

Word Tree Activity

Flashcards

Spelling Inventory

5-Comprehension of word meanings

Brain break

Explanation of words they learned to spell

Freewriting

Spelling Inventory

*Post-Tutoring reassessment and Summative Report Writing to take place after sessions end.

References

Ebner, M., Edtstadler, K., & Ebner, M. (2018). Tutoring writing spelling skills within a web-based platform for children. Universal access in the information society, 17(2), 305-323.

Keller, M. M., Neumann, K., & Fischer, H. E. (2017). The impact of physics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and motivation on students’ achievement and interest. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(5), 586-614.

Kjeldsen, A. C., Saarento-Zaprudin, S. K., & Niemi, P. O. (2019). Kindergarten training in phonological awareness: fluency and comprehension gains are greatest for readers at risk in Grades 1 through 9. Journal of learning disabilities, 52(5), 366-382.

Puliatte, A., & Ehri, L. C. (2018). Do 2nd and 3rd-grade teachers’ linguistic knowledge and instructional practices predict spelling gains in weaker spellers?. Reading and Writing, 31(2), 239-266.

Wilcox, M. J., Gray, S., & Reiser, M. (2020). Preschoolers with developmental speech and/or language impairment: Efficacy of the Teaching Early Literacy and Language (TELL) curriculum. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 51, 124-143.

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